The emergence of periodicals in Hindi for women and girls in early-twentieth-century India helped shape the nationalist-feminist thought in the country. Analysing the format and structure of periodical literature, Shobna Nijhawan shows how it became a medium for elite and middle-class women to think in new idioms and express themselves collectively at a time of social transition and political emancipation. With case studies of Hindi women's periodicals including Stri Darpan, Grihalakshmi, and Arya Mahila, and explorations of Hindi girls' periodicals like Kumari Darpan and Kanya Manoranjan, the study brings to light the nationalist demand for home rule for women. Discussing domesticity, political emancipation, and language politics, Shobna argues that women's periodicals instigated change and were not mere witnesses. With a perceptive Introduction setting the context, the work showcases rare archival material: advice texts, advertisements and book reviews, and multiple narratives specifically meant for women and girls of early twentieth-century north India.
This book provides an in-depth exploration of South Asian readaptations of race in vernacular languages. The focus is on a diverse set of printed texts, periodicals and books in Hindi and Urdu, two of the major print languages of British North India, written between 1860 and 1930. Imperial raciology is a burgeoning field of historical research. So far, most studies on race in the British Empire in South Asia have concentrated on the writings of Western-educated elites in English. The range of Hindi and Urdu sources analyzed by the author provides a more varied and complex picture of the ways in which South Asians reinterpreted racial concepts, thereby highlighting the importance of scrutinizing the vernacular dimensions of global entanglements. Part I of the book centers on the debates on "civilization" and "civility" in Hindi and Urdu periodicals, travelogues and geography books as well as Hindi literature on caste. It asks if and in what respect the discussions changed when authors appropriated racial concepts. Part II revolves around the "science" of eugenics. It scrutinizes more popular genres, namely, early twentieth century advisory literature on "fit reproduction." It highlights how the knowledge promoted there was different from "eugenics" as the (mainly English-writing) founders of the Indian eugenic movements endorsed it. A fascinating analysis of the ways in which colonized elites have adopted and readapted racial concepts and theories, this book will be of interest to academics in the fields of Modern South Asian History, History of Science, Critical Race Studies and Colonial and Imperial History.
From the shaping of identities and belongings through to current reconfigurations of nation, governance and state under a Hindu-Right dispensation, this book tracks the sentiments and structures that sustain the nation and nationalism in India. Nation, Nationalism and the Public Sphere: Religious Politics in India provides wide-ranging accounts of the growth and transformations of the nation, focusing especially on the intimate interplay of nation-state and nationalism with dominant religion. Drawing upon the perspectives of history, politics, anthropology, literature, film and media studies, this book explores key themes such as the appropriation and impact of western concepts of religion and the modern in postcolonial India and Pakistan, corporate bids to foster faith by erecting temples, formations of contemporary cosmopolitan religious imaginaries, the politics of cow protection, the rise of Narendra Modi as a national hero, and the fetish of the national in news channel debates. The book provides important insights into the success of the Hindu-Right, the discourse of religious–cultural nationalism, and their ramifications for democracy and citizenship.
This book analyses how a language became the instrument with which the contours of a new nation were traced. Mapping the success of formalized Hindi in creating a regional public sphere in north India in the early twentieth century, the book explores the way many educated Indians, influenced by the British ideas and institutions, expressed interest in new concepts such as progress, unity, and a common cultural heritage. From the development of new codes and institutions to a language that helped to create space for argument and debate, the book gives an overview of the Hindi public sphere. Furthermore, it throws light on the work of Vasudha Dalmia about the nascent Hindi public sphere and brings to light how early-twentieth-century discourses on language, literature, gender, history, and politics form the core of the Hindi culture that exists today.
Investigating the emergence of Hindi publishing in colonial Lucknow, long a stronghold of Urdu and Persian literary culture, Shobna Nijhawan offers a detailed study of literary activities emerging out of the publishing house Gaṅgā Pustak Mālā in the first half of the twentieth century. Closely associated with it was the Hindi monthly Sudhā, a literary, socio-political, and illustrated periodical, in which Hindi writings were promoted and developed for the education and entertainment of the reader. In charting the literary networks established by Dularelal Bhargava, the proprietor of Gaṅgā Pustak Mālā and chief Edited by of Sudhā, this volume sheds light on his role in the development of Hindi language and literature, creation of canonical literature, and commercialization and nationalization of books and periodicals in the north Indian Hindi public sphere. Using vernacular primary sources and drawing on scholarship on periodicals and publishing houses as well as Edited by-publishers that has emerged over the past two decades, Nijhawan shows how one publishing house singlehandedly impacted the role of Hindi in the public sphere.
"In early twentieth century British India, prior to the arrival of digital medias and after the rise of nationalist political movements, a small-town paper from the margins became a key node for an Urdu journalism conversation with particular influence in the United Provinces and Punjab. Understanding this newspaper's rise shows how a print public characterized by bottom-up as well as top-down approaches influenced the evolution of a new type of Urdu public in 20th century South Asia. Addressing a gap in scholarship on Urdu media in the early 20th century, during the period where it underwent some of its most critical transformations, this book contributes a discursive and material analysis of a previously unexamined Urdu newspaper Madinah, augmenting its analysis with evidence from contemporary Urdu, English and Hindi papers, government records, private diaries, private library holdings, ethnographic interviews with families who owned and ran the newspaper, and training materials for newspaper printers. Madinah identified the Urdu newspaper conversation both explicitly and implicitly with Muslim identity, a commitment that became difficult to manage as the pro-Congress paper sought simultaneously to counter calls for Pakistan, to criticize Congress' treatment of Muslims, and to emphasize Urdu's necessary connection to Muslim identity. Since Madinah delineated the boundaries of a Muslim, public conversation in a way that emphasized rootedness to local politics and small urban spaces like Bijnor, this study demonstrates the necessity of considering spatial and temporal orientation in studies of the public in South Asia"--
In the early twentieth century, British imperialism in India was at its peak and anti-colonial sentiments were on the rise. The nationalist desire for cultural self-identification was gaining ground and an important articulation of this was the demand for a national language and literature to represent a modern India. It was in this context that Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi, a novel, daring, and contentious litterateur, launched his multimedia campaign of constructing a new Hindi literary establishment. As the long-time editor of the Hindi journal Sarasvatī, Dwivedi’s influence was so far-reaching that this period of modern literature in Hindi is known as the Dwivedi era. However, he had to face stiff opposition as well. Sujata Mody’s book sheds light on the interactions between Dwivedi and his supporters and detractors and shows how Dwivedi’s responses to challenges were pragmatic and strategically varied. The Making of Modern Hindi presents Dwivedi as a dynamic and influential arbiter of literary modernity whose exchanges with competing authorities are an important piece in the history of Hindi literature.
This book explores the colonial mentalities that shaped and were shaped by women living in colonial India between 1820 and 1932. Using a broad framework the book examines the many life experiences of these women and how their position changed, both personally and professionally, over this long period of study. Drawing on a rich documentary record from archives in the United Kingdom, India, Pakistan, North America, Ireland and Australia this book builds a clear picture of the colonial-configured changes that influenced women interacting with the colonial state. In the early nineteenth century the role of some women occupying colonial spaces in India was to provide emotional sustenance to expatriate European males serving away from the moral strictures of Britain. However, powerful colonial statecraft intervened in the middle of the century to racialise these women and give them a new official, moral purpose. Only some females could be teachers, chosen by their race as reliable transmitters of genteel accomplishment codes of European, middle-class femininity. Yet colonial female activism also had impact when pressing against these revised, official gender constructions. New geographies of female medical care outreach emerged. Roman Catholic teaching orders, whose activism was sponsored by piety, sought out other female colonial peripheries, some of which the state was then forced to accommodate. Ultimately the national movement built its own gender thresholds of interchange, ignoring the unproductive colonial learning models for females, infected as these models had become with the broader race, class and gender agendas of a fading raj. This book will appeal to students and academics working on the history of empire and imperialism, gender studies, postcolonial studies and the history of education.
Global and cosmopolitan since the late nineteenth century, anglophone South Asian women's writing has flourished in many genres and locations, encompassing diverse works linked by issues of language, geography, history, culture, gender, and literary tradition. Whether writing in the homeland or in the diaspora, authors offer representations of social struggle and inequality while articulating possibilities for resistance. In this volume experienced instructors attend to the style and aesthetics of the texts as well as provide necessary background for students. Essays address historical and political contexts, including colonialism, partition, migration, ecological concerns, and evolving gender roles, and consider both traditional and contemporary genres such as graphic novels, chick lit, and Instapoetry. Presenting ideas for courses in Asian studies, women's studies, postcolonial literature, and world literature, this book asks broadly what it means to study anglophone South Asian women's writing in the United States, in Asia, and around the world.
The age of imperialism ushered in a new phenomenon of large-scale organized migration of labourers through the systems of slavery and indenture, which were devised to feed the colonial political-economy. Another feature of such migrations was that it led to the permanent settlement of the uprooted African and Asian labourers in the new lands. These developments, in the long run, intertwined the histories of the ‘ruler’ and the ‘ruled’, the so-called ‘civilized’ and the ‘uncivilized’ along with the people from various continents, thus giving rise to plural societies. The narratives, however, remained dominated by the colonial legacies and frames of reference. Today such historical colonial narratives are being challenged and clarified through multi-disciplinary academic engagements. The authors in this volume take gender as a prominent analytical category and raise new questions and understandings in the way we conceptualize, document and write about gendered migrations in the diaspora. Please note: Taylor & Francis does not sell or distribute the Hardback in India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.
This volume presents women warriors and hero cults from a number of cultures since the early modern period. The first truly global study of women warriors, individual chapters examine figures such as Joan of Arc in Cairo, revenging daughters in Samurai Japan, a transgender Mexican revolutionary and WWII Chinese spies. Exploring issues of violence, gender fluidity, memory and nation-building, the authors discuss how these real or imagined female figures were constructed and deployed in different national and transnational contexts. Divided into four parts, they explore how women warriors and their stories were created, consider the issue of the violent woman, discuss how these female figures were gendered, and highlight the fate of women warriors who live on. The chapters illustrate the ways in which female fighters have figured in nation-building stories and in the ordering or re-ordering of gender politics, and give the history of women fighters a critical edge. Exploring women as military actors, women after war, and the strategic use of women's stories in national narratives, this intellectually innovative volume provides the first global treatment of women warriors and their histories.