Jonathan Boston and Simon Chapple have written the definitive book on child poverty in New Zealand. Dr Russell Wills, Children’s Commissioner Between 130,000 and 285,000 New Zealand children live in poverty, depending on the measure used. These disturbing figures are widely discussed, yet often poorly understood. If New Zealand does not have ‘third world poverty’, what are these children actually experiencing? Is the real problem not poverty but simply poor parenting? How does New Zealand compare globally and what measures of poverty and hardship are most relevant here? What are the consequences of this poverty for children, their families and society? Can we afford to reduce child poverty and, if we can, how? Jonathan Boston and Simon Chapple look hard at these questions, drawing on available national and international evidence and speaking to an audience across the political spectrum. Their analysis highlights the strong and urgent case for addressing child poverty in New Zealand. Crucially, the book goes beyond illustrating the scale of this challenge, and why it must be addressed, to identifying real options for reducing child poverty. A range of practical and achievable policies is presented, alongside candid discussion of their strengths and limitations. These proposals for improving the lives of disadvantaged children deserve wide public debate and make this a vitally important book for all New Zealanders.
The 2005 edition of UNICEFs State of the Worlds Children focuses on how poverty, conflict and HIV/AIDS threaten the idea of childhood as a period of time for children to grow and develop to their full potential. In several regions and countries, some of the gains made since the adoption of the Convention on the rights of the child in 1989 are in danger of reversal. The rights of over 1 billion children are violated by being severely underserved of one or more of the basic services required to survive, grow and develop.
The authors in this book use the metaphors of invisibility and visibility to explore the social and school lives of many children and young people in North America whose complexity, strengths, and vulnerabilities are largely unseen in the society and its schools. These “invisible children” are socially devalued in the sense that alleviating the difficult conditions of their lives is not a priority—children who are subjected to derogatory stereotypes, who are educationally neglected in schools that respond inadequately if at all to their needs, and who receive relatively little attention from scholars in the field of education or writers in the popular press. The chapter authors, some of the most passionate and insightful scholars in the field of education today, detail oversights and assaults, visible and invisible, but also affirm the capacity of many of these young people to survive, flourish, and often educate others, despite the painful and even desperate circumstances of their lives. By sharing their voices, providing basic information about them, and offering thoughtful analysis of their social situation, this volume combines education and advocacy in an accessible volume responsive to some of the most pressing issues of our time. Although their research methodologies differ, all of the contributors aim to get the facts straight and to set them in a meaningful context. New in the Third Edition: Chapters retained from the previous edition have been thoroughly revised and updated, and five totally new chapters have been added on the topics of: *young people pushed into the “school-to-prison” pipeline; *the “environmental landscape” of two out-of-school Mexican migrant teens in the rural Midwest; *the perceptions and practices, in and outside schools, that construct African American boys as school failures; *negative portrayals of blackness in the context of understanding the “collateral damage of continued white privilege”; and *working-class pregnant and parenting teens’ efforts to create positive identities for themselves. Of interest to a broad range of researchers, students, and practitioners across the field of education, this compelling book is accessible to all readers. It is particularly appropriate as a text for courses that address the social context of education, cultural and political change, and public policy, including social foundations of education, sociology of education, multicultural education, curriculum studies, and educational policy.
The articles in this volume shed light on some of the major tensions in the field of children?s rights (such as the ways in which children?s best interests and respect for their autonomy can be reconciled), challenges (such as how the CRC can be made a reality in the lives of children in the face of ignorance, apathy or outright opposition) and critiques (whether children?s rights are a Western imposition or a successful global consensus). Along the way, the writing covers a myriad of issues, encompassing the opposition to the CRC in the US; gay parenting: Dr Seuss?s take on children?s autonomy; the voice of neonates on their health care; the role of NGO in supporting child labourers in India, and young people in detention and more.
A substantial number of American children experience poverty: about 17 percent of those under the age of eighteen meet the government’s definition, and the proportion is even greater within minority groups. Childhood poverty can have lifelong effects, resulting in poor educational, labor market, and physical and mental health outcomes for adults. These problems have long been recognized, and there are numerous programs designed to alleviate or even eliminate poverty; as these programs compete for scarce resources, it is important to develop a clear view of their impact as tools for poverty alleviation. Targeting Investments in Children tackles the problem of evaluating these programs by examining them using a common metric: their impact on earnings in adulthood. The volume’s contributors explore a variety of issues, such as the effect of interventions targeted at children of different ages, and study a range of programs, including child care, after-school care, and drug prevention. The results will be invaluable to educational leaders and researchers as well as policy makers.
All Modern Psychologists Hold That Every Individual Should Have, At Least, Little Acquaintance With Child Psychology As It Helps In Solving Children'S Problem All The Better. Child Psychology Is In Fact A Composite And Comprehensive Study Of Children.The Present Book Child Psychology Has Added A New Dimension To The Vast Knowledge Of The Subject. It Introduces Various Stages Of Child Development Right From The Conception To The Adolescence. Its Scope Encompasses Child'S Conative, Affective And Cognitive Aspects As Well As Behaviour. It Analyses The Impacts Of Environment And Heredity On Child'S Development. In Addition, It Highlights The Scientific Underpinning Of Child Psychology And Forms A Contextual Approach. The Other Major Areas Covered By The Book Are Response Mechanism, Motor Development, Sexual Development, Moral And Aesthetic Development, Learning And Sense Training, Thinking And Reasoning, Personality, Delinquency, Psychological Testing And Many More.The Present Book Can Be Rightly Held As An Ideal Textbook On The Subject, Covering Syllabi Of Majority Of The Indian Universities. The Standard Books Of The West Are No Doubt Referred To, But The Examples For Elucidation And Elaboration Have Been Given Here In The Context Of Indian Conditions. While The Presentation Of The Subject Matter Is Analytic, The Language Of The Book Is Free Of Jargons And Easily Accessible To The Average Readers Also. Child Psychology Will Undoubtedly Prove Useful To The Students As Well As Teachers Of The Subject. For The General Readers, It Is An Ideal Means Of Acquainting With Child'S General Problems And Their Effective Solutions.
Moving nimbly between literary and historical texts, Monica Flegel provides a much-needed interpretive framework for understanding the specific formulation of child cruelty popularized by the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (NSPCC) in the late nineteenth century. Flegel considers a wide range of well-known and more obscure texts from the mid-eighteenth century to the early twentieth, including philosophical writings by Locke and Rousseau, poetry by Coleridge, Blake, and Caroline Norton, works by journalists and reformers like Henry Mayhew and Mary Carpenter, and novels by Frances Trollope, Charles Dickens, Wilkie Collins, and Arthur Morrison. Taking up crucial topics such as the linking of children with animals, the figure of the child performer, the relationship between commerce and child endangerment, and the problem of juvenile delinquency, Flegel examines the emergence of child abuse as a subject of legal and social concern in England, and its connection to earlier, primarily literary representations of endangered children. With the emergence of the NSPCC and the new crime of cruelty to children, new professions and genres, such as child protection and social casework, supplanted literary works as the authoritative voices in the definition of social ills and their cure. Flegel argues that this development had material effects on the lives of children, as well as profound implications for the role of class in representations of suffering and abused children. Combining nuanced close readings of individual texts with persuasive interpretations of their influences and limitations, Flegel's book makes a significant contribution to the history of childhood, social welfare, the family, and Victorian philanthropy.
This report presents the first ever scientific measurement of the extent and depth of child poverty in developing regions. This measurement is based upon internationally agreed definitions arising from the international framework of child rights. Indicators of severe deprivation of basic human need for shelter, sanitation, safe water, information, health, education and food were constructed using survey data on nearly 1.2 million children in 46 countries collected mainly during the late 1990's. This is the largest, most accurate survey sample of children ever assembled.