In den letzten Jahren hat die Rivalität zwischen den USA und China zugenommen und ein Konflikt um die globale politische Vorherrschaft zeichnet sich ab. Aufgrund der starken ökonomischen Vernetzung der beiden Staaten hätte ein offen geführter Konflikt jedoch hohe wirtschaftliche Verluste für beide Seiten zur Folge. Vor diesem Hintergrund untersucht das Buch wie hoch die Anreize für beide Seiten sind, aufgrund wirtschaftlicher Überlegungen einen Konflikt zu vermeiden und auch zukünftig auf Kooperation zu setzen.
Does growing economic interdependence among great powers increase or decrease the chance of conflict and war? Liberals argue that the benefits of trade give states an incentive to stay peaceful. Realists contend that trade compels states to struggle for vital raw materials and markets. Moving beyond the stale liberal-realist debate, Economic Interdependence and War lays out a dynamic theory of expectations that shows under what specific conditions interstate commerce will reduce or heighten the risk of conflict between nations. Taking a broad look at cases spanning two centuries, from the Napoleonic and Crimean wars to the more recent Cold War crises, Dale Copeland demonstrates that when leaders have positive expectations of the future trade environment, they want to remain at peace in order to secure the economic benefits that enhance long-term power. When, however, these expectations turn negative, leaders are likely to fear a loss of access to raw materials and markets, giving them more incentive to initiate crises to protect their commercial interests. The theory of trade expectations holds important implications for the understanding of Sino-American relations since 1985 and for the direction these relations will likely take over the next two decades. Economic Interdependence and War offers sweeping new insights into historical and contemporary global politics and the actual nature of democratic versus economic peace.
This book brings together up-to-date research from prominent international scholars in a collaborative exploration of the Japan’s efforts to shape Asia’s rapidly shifting regional order. Pulled between an increasingly inward-looking America whose security support remains critical and a rising and more militarily assertive China with whom Japan retains deep economic interdependence, Japanese leaders are consistently maneuvering to ensure the country’s regional interests. Nuclear and missile threats from North Korea and historically problematic relations with South Korea further complicate Japanese endeavors. So too do the shifting winds of Japanese domestic politics, economics and identity. The authors weave these complex threads together to offer a nuanced portrait of both Japan and the region. Scholars, observers of politics, and policymakers will find this a timely and useful collection.
Since the 1985 Plaza Accord, trade, investment and economic interdependence among the Asian economies has increased, while reliance on the US has fallen. In the light of this, Kwan considers the possiblity of forming a yen bloc in the region.
This book explores one of the most important current topics in international relations: whether trade diminishes or enhances conflict. Mark J. C. Crescenzi adopts an original perspective, arguing that the 'exit costs' confronting states - how hard it would be for them to replace the trade they are threatening to cut - determines the credibility of the threat and the effect of such trade on the likelihood of political conflict.
Bringing together for the first time distinguished Gulf experts to analyse the renewed geo-economic prominence of the Gulf states, this volume investigates some of the 'new power brokers' in the world economy: the oil-exporting states of the Gulf. The Gulf Cooperation Council's (GCC) members: Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia, collectively have the largest proven oil reserves in the world and are among the world's largest oil-exporting states. Gulf Arab states are actively pursuing a variety of foreign investment strategies. Some of these investments are being managed by sovereign wealth funds, government investment corporations, and government-controlled companies. This renewed geo-economic status has received a lot of media attention but there has been a dearth of academic study on what this shift in global economic power means for the international economic system. This volume aims to fill this gap with a rigorous scholarly analysis based on primary sources and raw economic data. It brings together the expertise of academics who have devoted their career to careful study of the region and of renowned scholars of international political economy.
This book analyzes the shifting global economic architecture, indicating the decentralizing authority in global economic governance since the Cold War and, especially, following the 2008-09 global financial crisis. The author examines recent adjustments to the organizational framework, contestation of policy principles, norms, and practices, and destabilizing actor hierarchies, particularly in global macroeconomic, trade, and development governance. The study's ‘analytical eclecticism’ includes a core constructivist IR approach, but also incorporates insights from several international relations theories as well as political and economic theory. The book develops a unique ‘analytical matrix’, which analyzes effects of strategic, political, and cognitive authority in the organizational, policy, and actor contexts of the global economic architecture. It concludes that, despite concerns about potential fragmentation, decentralizing authority has increased the integration of leading developing states and new actors in contemporary global economic governance.
A collection of essays by twenty-three of Canada's leading economic geographers, Canada and the Global Economy is a comprehensive study of the evolving economic and geographic patterns of Canadian development. It provides a benchmark for research on the spatial development of the Canadian economy. The contributors explore four central themes: the locational impacts of the openness of the Canadian economy, Canada's relatively simple economic geography in terms of regional variations in resources and urban development, the problems of keeping pace with rapid advances in technology, and the role of government in maintaining a national market and assisting economic development. They outline the essential elements of Canada's contemporary economic geography and highlight the origins and spatial imprint of change in the Canadian economy; in particular they provide an assessment of Canada's participation in significant international patterns of economic change. Canada and the Global Economy is concerned not only with the economic size and location of consumption and production but also with institutional changes and shifts in employment, the sectoral composition of economic activity, and the organizational structure and locational behaviour of particular industries and firms. Special attention is given to the technological development of both established industries and new service and manufacturing activities. A timely addition to the field, it provides a geographic perspective on significant changes in jobs and types of work that result from the transformation of economic activities.
It is often assumed that Iran must necessarily submit to the forces of globalization and liberalize its economy, but the country’s ruling elites have continued throughout the post-revolutionary era to resist these pressures for neo-liberal economic reform, seeking to survive in the battlefield of today’s globalizing economy whilst remaining loyal to their own rules of engagement. This book analyzes the dynamics of economic reform in the Islamic Republic of Iran as they have played out in this post-revolutionary struggle for economic independence from 1979 up to the present day. It shows how, although some groups within the Iranian elite are in favor of opening up the economy to the inflow of foreign capital – believing that lasting independence requires economic growth powered in part by investment from abroad – others argue that such economic liberalization might endanger Iran’s national interests and put the survival of the post-revolutionary regime at risk. By examining the political causes of the ongoing tug-of-war that has taken place between these two sides of reform and counter-reform, this book provides a new approach to understanding the complex process of economic policy-making in the Islamic Republic of Iran, which will be relevant to future examinations of the political economy of the Middle East.