The accumulation of large amounts of ash from fossil fuel combustion for electric power plant generation is becoming a major environmental concern in the United States. Furthermore, stringent environmental regulations mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency through the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as well as state and local environmental regulations may result in even more ash production with subsequent contact with the environment. The concentrations of trace elements in coal residues are extremely variable and depend on the composition of the original coal, conditions during combustion, the efficiency of emission control devices, storage and handling ofbyproducts, and climate. The research papers in this book were presented as a part of the Sixth International Conference on the Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements held at the University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada, from July 29-August 2, 2001. The purpose of this corit'erence was to present current knowledge on the source, pathways, behavior and effects of trace elements in soils, waters, plants and animals. In addition, the book also includes invited research papers from scientists who have done significant research in the area of coal and coal combustion byproducts. All the research papers presented herein have been subjected to peer review.
With an approach that stresses the fundamental solid state behaviour of minerals, and with emphasis on both theory and experiment, this 1995 text surveys the physics and chemistry of earth materials. It starts with a systematic tour of crystal chemistry of both simple and complex structures (with completely new structural drawings) and discusses how structural and thermodynamic information is obtained experimentally. The quantitative concepts of chemical bonding - band theory, molecular orbit and ionic models - are reviewed. The book goes on to discuss physical properties and to relate microscopic features to macroscopic thermodynamic behaviour. The book then discusses high pressure phase transitions, amorphous materials and solid state reactions, and concludes with a look at the interface between mineral physics and materials science. Highly illustrated throughout, this book fills the gap between undergraduate texts and specialised review volumes, for students in earth sciences and materials science.
Spectroscopic Methods in Mineralogy and Material Science covers significant advances in the technological aspects and applications of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques used in the Earth and Materials Sciences. The current volume compliments the now classic Volume 18, Spectroscopic Methods in Mineralogy and Geology, which became an essential resource to many scientists and educators for the past two decades. This volume updates techniques covered in Volume 18, and introduces new techniques available for probing the secrets of Earth materials, such as X-ray Raman and Brillouin spectroscopy. Other important topics including Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) are also covered.
Volume 11 of Reviews in Mineralogy attempts to synthesize our present understanding of certain aspects of the mineralogy and chemistry of the rock-forming carbonates. This review follows, by ten years, a major assessment of (sedimentary) carbonate minerals by Lippmann (1973). There is only minor overlap of subject material, and I hope that this difference reflects fairly how this field has developed. In this volume, some of the papers are general (i.e., those addressing crystal chemistry and phase relations), and they provide overviews of a fundamental nature and are of interest to many. Others are more specialized in coverage and generally reflect the different approaches used in carbonate geochemistry. The final chapter introduces transmission electron microscopy, a relatively new and powerful technique for mineralogical research that has great potential in carbonate research.
Volume 67 of Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry covers the Crystal Chemistry, Occurrence, and Health Issues of Amphiboles. Contents: Amphiboles: Crystal Chemistry Classification of the Amphiboles New Amphibole Compositions: Natural and Synthetic Long-Range Order in Amphiboles Short-Range Order in Amphiboles Non-Ambient in situ Studies of Amphiboles The Synthesis and Stability of Some End-Member Amphiboles The Significance of the Reaction Path in Synthesizing Single-Phase Amphibole of Defined Composition Amphiboles in the Igneous Environment Metamorphic Amphiboles: Composition and Coexistence Trace-Element Partitioning Between Amphibole and Silicate Melt Amphiboles: Environmental and Health Concerns Amphiboles: Historical Perspective
Publisher: The Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland
In a sense, all mineralogy is environmental mineralogy. However, the term environmental has come to be employed (particularly in combination with terms such as science, issue or problem) to refer to those systems at or near the surface of the Earth where the geosphere comes into contact with the hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere. This is, of course, the environment upon which the human race depends for survival and, hence, is now sometimes referred to as the critical zone. Those systems containing minerals that constitute the most important or key environments are considered here: soils, modern sediments, atmospheric aerosols, and the interior or exterior parts of certain micro- and macro-organisms. Particularly important are the roles that minerals play in processes that act over time to control or influence the environment at various scales of observation. Both pure systems and those contaminated as a result of human activity are considered. The objectives for this volume are to help to define the subject of environmental mineralogy, and to provide an initial source of information both for mineralogists and other scientists who wish to understand or work in this field. It was hoped that it might also provide a text for use by those teaching courses in the subject at advanced undergraduate or graduate student level.
Volume 18 of Reviews in Mineralogy provides a general introduction to the use of spectroscopic techniques in Earth Sciences. It gives an Introduction To Spectroscopic Methods and covers Symmetry, Group Theory And Quantum Mechanics; Spectrum-Fitting Methods; Infrared And Raman Spectroscopy; Inelastic Neutron Scattering; Vibrational Spectroscopy Of Hydrous Components; Optical Spectroscopy; Mossbauer Spectroscopy; MAS NMR Spectroscopy Of Minerals And Glasses; NMR Spectroscopy And Dynamic Processes In Mineralogy And Geochemistry; X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy: Applications In Mineralogy ind Geochemistry; Electron Paramagnetic Resonance; Auger Electron And X-Ray Photelectron Spectroscopies and Luminescence, X-Ray Emission and New Spectroscopies. The authors of this volume presented a short course, entitled "Spectroscopic Methods in Mineralogy and Geology", May 13-15, 1988, in Hunt Valley, Maryland.
Volume 26 of Reviews in Mineralogy provides a multidisciplinary review of our current knowledge of contact metamorphism. As in any field of endeavor, we are provided with new questions, thereby dictating future directions of study. Hopefully, this volume will provide inspiration and direction for future research on contact metamorphism. The Mineralogical Society of America sponsored the short course on Contact Metamorphism, October 17-19, 1991, at the Pala Mesa Resort, Fallbrook, California, prior to its annual meeting with the Geological Society of America.