The volume opens a series dealing with the optical spectra of rare earth ions in inorganic solid rare earth compounds, host crystals, and glasses. Ions of the elements Ce to Lu in host materials serve as optically active centers in commercially used phosphors and in solid state lasers. Thus, much experimental and theoretical work on their spectra has been performed and is still in progress. Both a phenomenological description of the experimental spectra as well as the appropriate energy level diagrams are given. The topics of the present volume are the optical spectra of cerium and praseodymium ions in solid host materials. Especially the spectra of Pr3+ ions continue to be studied intensively because of laser activity in the visible region and the experimentally observed upconversion phenomena. The great variety of host materials includes praseodymium halids, PR3+-doped rare earth halides like LaF3 or LaCL3, fluorite, garnets, borates, phosphates, double nitrates or glasses.
Famous for its history of numerous element discoverers, Sweden is the origin of this comprehensive encylopedia of the elements. It provides both an important database for professionals as well as detailed reading ranging from historical facts, discoverers' portraits, colour plates of mineral types, natural occurrences, and industrial figures to winning and refining processes, biological roles and applications in modern chemistry, engineering and industry. Elemental data is presented in fact tables which include numerous physical and thermodynamic properties, isotope lists, radiation absorption characteristics, NMR parameters, and others. Further pertinent data is supplied in additional tables throughout the text. Published in Swedish in three volumes from 1998 to 2000, the contents have been revised and expanded by the author for this English edition.
Much new data and many new ideas have emerged in the area of oregeology and industrial minerals since publication of the secondedition of this text in 1987. The overriding philosophy behind thisnew edition is the inclusion and integration of this new materialwithin the established framework of the text. The third edition isre-presented in the modern double-column format. Non-metallic deposits of industrial and bulk materials are fullycovered to meet the changing emphasis of courses in appliedgeology. In addition, chapter 1 has been considerably enlarged toinclude a section on mineral economics covering metals, industrialminerals and bulk materials. In this section, the various aspectsof economic exploitation of industrial and bulk materials arecompared with those of metallic deposits. Other major revisions andadditions include a section on fluid inclusions, expansion of thesection on wall rock alteration, expansion of the material onisotope studies, and the inclusion of a section on hydraulicfracturing and seismic pumping.