Philosophy of Chance

Philosophy of Chance

Author: Michael Heller


ISBN: 8378863832


Page: 0

View: 658

In this book, which is written by the 2008 Templeton Prize laureate Michael Heller, the problems of chance and probability are seen in light of the advancements of physics and biology. Heller's claim is that chance finds its place within the structure of the universe and cosmic evolution. His insightful remarks may be considered a critique of both Dawkins' 'blind watchmaker' approach and Dembski's 'intelligent design' perspective.

Probability is the Very Guide of Life

Probability is the Very Guide of Life

Author: Henry Ely Kyburg

Publisher: Open Court Publishing

ISBN: 0812695135

Category: Mathematics

Page: 388

View: 317

This collection of philosophical essays looks at various technical problems in the use of probability theory for guidance in practical decisions. This text is intended for those who already have a basic grounding in philosophy, logic and probabilty theory.

Chance in Physics, Computer Science and Philosophy

Chance in Physics, Computer Science and Philosophy

Author: Walter Hehl

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783658351120

Category: Computers

Page: 281

View: 810

Chance is uncanny to us. We thought it didn't exist, that God or a reasonable explanation was behind everything. But we know today: It exists. We know that much of what surrounds us and which we do not see through, nevertheless runs causally. Unlike what was thought in the days of the Enlightenment, chance is the rule around us rather than lawful order. The clouds are stochastic fractals, the waves on the sea are pure random machinery. The philosopher Charles Peirce recognized the fundamental importance of chance in precisely this sense, even before quantum and chaos theory, and gave the doctrine its name: Tychism. Without chance there would be nothing new, no life, no creativity, no history. This book looks at chance from the perspective of physics, computer science, and philosophy. It spans from antiquity to quantum physics and shows that chance is firmly built into the world and that it would not exist without chance. This book is a translation of the original German 1st edition Der Zufall in Physik, Informatik und Philosophie by Walter Hehl, published by Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, part of Springer Nature in 2021. The translation was done with the help of artificial intelligence (machine translation by the service A subsequent human revision was done primarily in terms of content, so that the book will read stylistically differently from a conventional translation. Springer Nature works continuously to further the development of tools for the production of books and on the related technologies to support the authors.

Physics and Chance

Physics and Chance

Author: Lawrence Sklar

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521558816

Category: Science

Page: 458

View: 700

Lawrence Sklar offers a comprehensive, non-technical introduction to statistical mechanics and attempts to understand its foundational elements.

A Philosophical Guide to Chance

A Philosophical Guide to Chance

Author: Toby Handfield


ISBN: 1107229669

Category: Chance

Page: 256

View: 249

"It is a commonplace that scientific inquiry makes extensive use of probabilities, many of which seem to be objective chances, describing features of reality that are independent of our minds. Such chances appear to have a number of paradoxical or puzzling features: they appear to be mind-independent facts, but they are intimately connected with rational psychology; they display a temporal asymmetry, but they are supposed to be grounded in physical laws that are time-symmetric; and chances are used to explain and predict frequencies of events, although they cannot be reduced to those frequencies. This book offers an accessible and non-technical introduction to these and other puzzles. Toby Handfield engages with traditional metaphysics and philosophy of science, drawing upon recent work in the foundations of quantum mechanics and thermodynamics to provide a novel account of objective probability that is empirically informed without requiring specialist scientific knowledge"--

The Challenge of Chance

The Challenge of Chance

Author: Klaas Landsman

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319263007

Category: Science

Page: 276

View: 315

This book presents a multidisciplinary perspective on chance, with contributions from distinguished researchers in the areas of biology, cognitive neuroscience, economics, genetics, general history, law, linguistics, logic, mathematical physics, statistics, theology and philosophy. The individual chapters are bound together by a general introduction followed by an opening chapter that surveys 2500 years of linguistic, philosophical, and scientific reflections on chance, coincidence, fortune, randomness, luck and related concepts. A main conclusion that can be drawn is that, even after all this time, we still cannot be sure whether chance is a truly fundamental and irreducible phenomenon, in that certain events are simply uncaused and could have been otherwise, or whether it is always simply a reflection of our ignorance. Other challenges that emerge from this book include a better understanding of the contextuality and perspectival character of chance (including its scale-dependence), and the curious fact that, throughout history (including contemporary science), chance has been used both as an explanation and as a hallmark of the absence of explanation. As such, this book challenges the reader to think about chance in a new way and to come to grips with this endlessly fascinating phenomenon.

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Social Science

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Social Science

Author: Harold Kincaid

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195392753

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 676

View: 295

The philosophy of the social sciences considers the underlying explanatory powers of the social (or human) sciences, such as history, economics, anthropology, politics, and sociology. The type of questions covered includes the methodological (the nature of observations, laws, theories, and explanations) to the ontological — whether or not these sciences can explain human nature in a way consistent with common-sense beliefs. This Handbook is a major, comprehensive look at the key ideas in the field, is guided by several principles. The first is that the philosophy of social science should be closely connected to, and informed by, developments in the sciences themselves. The second is that the volume should appeal to practicing social scientists as well as philosophers, with the contributors being both drawn from both ranks, and speaking to ongoing controversial issues in the field. Finally, the volume promotes connections across the social sciences, with greater internal discussion and interaction across disciplinary boundaries.

Metaphysics and the Philosophy of Science

Metaphysics and the Philosophy of Science

Author: Matthew H. Slater

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199363209

Category: Philosophy

Page: 273

View: 699

This volume of essays will explore the relationship between science and metaphysics, asking what role metaphysics should play in philosophizing about science. The essays will address this question both through ground-level investigations of particular issues in the metaphysics of science and more general methodological investigations. They thereby contribute to an ongoing discussion concerning the future, the limits, and the possibility of metaphysics as a legitimate philosophical project.

Idealism, Pragmatism, and Feminism

Idealism, Pragmatism, and Feminism

Author: John J. Kaag

Publisher: Lexington Books

ISBN: 9780739167809

Category: Deconstruction

Page: 241

View: 563

This is an intellectual biography in the most literal sense; at no point in the history of American philosophy has an individual embodied the ideals that they wrote about at length. Philosophical idealism, pragmatism and feminism served as guides for Ella Lyman Cabot as she entered the discipline of philosophy, a discipline that continues to marginalize the work of women to this very day.