Chance in Physics, Computer Science and Philosophy

Chance in Physics, Computer Science and Philosophy

Author: Walter Hehl

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783658351120

Category: Computers

Page: 281

View: 871

Chance is uncanny to us. We thought it didn't exist, that God or a reasonable explanation was behind everything. But we know today: It exists. We know that much of what surrounds us and which we do not see through, nevertheless runs causally. Unlike what was thought in the days of the Enlightenment, chance is the rule around us rather than lawful order. The clouds are stochastic fractals, the waves on the sea are pure random machinery. The philosopher Charles Peirce recognized the fundamental importance of chance in precisely this sense, even before quantum and chaos theory, and gave the doctrine its name: Tychism. Without chance there would be nothing new, no life, no creativity, no history. This book looks at chance from the perspective of physics, computer science, and philosophy. It spans from antiquity to quantum physics and shows that chance is firmly built into the world and that it would not exist without chance. This book is a translation of the original German 1st edition Der Zufall in Physik, Informatik und Philosophie by Walter Hehl, published by Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, part of Springer Nature in 2021. The translation was done with the help of artificial intelligence (machine translation by the service DeepL.com). A subsequent human revision was done primarily in terms of content, so that the book will read stylistically differently from a conventional translation. Springer Nature works continuously to further the development of tools for the production of books and on the related technologies to support the authors.

Probability is the Very Guide of Life

Probability is the Very Guide of Life

Author: Henry E. Kyburg

Publisher: Open Court Publishing

ISBN: 0812695135

Category: Mathematics

Page: 388

View: 352

This collection of philosophical essays looks at various technical problems in the use of probability theory for guidance in practical decisions. This text is intended for those who already have a basic grounding in philosophy, logic and probabilty theory.

The Challenge of Chance

The Challenge of Chance

Author: Klaas Landsman

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319263007

Category: Science

Page: 276

View: 99

This book presents a multidisciplinary perspective on chance, with contributions from distinguished researchers in the areas of biology, cognitive neuroscience, economics, genetics, general history, law, linguistics, logic, mathematical physics, statistics, theology and philosophy. The individual chapters are bound together by a general introduction followed by an opening chapter that surveys 2500 years of linguistic, philosophical, and scientific reflections on chance, coincidence, fortune, randomness, luck and related concepts. A main conclusion that can be drawn is that, even after all this time, we still cannot be sure whether chance is a truly fundamental and irreducible phenomenon, in that certain events are simply uncaused and could have been otherwise, or whether it is always simply a reflection of our ignorance. Other challenges that emerge from this book include a better understanding of the contextuality and perspectival character of chance (including its scale-dependence), and the curious fact that, throughout history (including contemporary science), chance has been used both as an explanation and as a hallmark of the absence of explanation. As such, this book challenges the reader to think about chance in a new way and to come to grips with this endlessly fascinating phenomenon.

Between Chance and Choice

Between Chance and Choice

Author: Harald Atmanspacher

Publisher: Imprint Academic

ISBN: 0907845215

Category: Philosophy

Page: 548

View: 143

Chance and choice are two leading actors on stage whenever issues of determinism are under discussion. This volume collects essays by scientists and philosophers presenting a discussion of determinism, randomness and freewill from the viewpoint of philosophy, maths and psychology.

Philosophy of Chance

Philosophy of Chance

Author: Michael Heller

Publisher:

ISBN: 8378863832

Category:

Page: 237

View: 449

In this book - which is written by the 2008 Templeton Prize laureate Michael Heller - the problems of chance and probability are seen in light of the advancements of physics and biology. Heller's claim is that chance finds its place within the structure of the universe and cosmic evolution. His insightful remarks may be considered a critique of both Dawkins' 'blind watchmaker' approach and Dembski's 'intelligent design' perspective. Heller is a cosmologist, a philosopher, the director of the Copernicus Center for Interdisciplinary Studies in Krakow, a professor at the John Paul II University in Krakow, and an adjunct member of the Vatican Observatory.

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Social Science

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Social Science

Author: Harold Kincaid

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195392753

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 676

View: 526

The philosophy of the social sciences considers the underlying explanatory powers of the social (or human) sciences, such as history, economics, anthropology, politics, and sociology. The type of questions covered includes the methodological (the nature of observations, laws, theories, and explanations) to the ontological — whether or not these sciences can explain human nature in a way consistent with common-sense beliefs. This Handbook is a major, comprehensive look at the key ideas in the field, is guided by several principles. The first is that the philosophy of social science should be closely connected to, and informed by, developments in the sciences themselves. The second is that the volume should appeal to practicing social scientists as well as philosophers, with the contributors being both drawn from both ranks, and speaking to ongoing controversial issues in the field. Finally, the volume promotes connections across the social sciences, with greater internal discussion and interaction across disciplinary boundaries.

Chance and Necessity

Chance and Necessity

Author: Jacques Monod

Publisher:

ISBN: UCSD:31822006520399

Category: Biology

Page: 198

View: 647

"A philosophical statement whose explicit intention is to sweep away as both false and dangerous the 'animist' conception of man that has dominated virtually all Western world views from those of primitive cultures to those of dialectical materialists. Monod bases his argument on the evidence of modern biology, which shows, indisputably, that man is the product of chance genetic mutation. He draws upon what we now know about genetic structure (and on what we can theorize) to suggest an entirely new way of looking at ourselves. He argues that objective scientific knowledge, the only knowledge we can rely on, denies the concepts of destiny or evolutionary purpose that underlie traditional philosophies; and he contends that the persistence of those concepts is responsible for the intensifying schizophrenia of a world that accepts, and lives by, the fruits of science while refusing to face its momentous moral implications"--From publisher description.

The Matter of Chance

The Matter of Chance

Author: D. H. Mellor

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521615984

Category: Mathematics

Page: 214

View: 536

Statistical techniques and theories have become widely applied in the physical, biological and social sciences. This book deals not so much with statistical methods as with the central concept of chance, or statistical probability, which statistical theories apply to nature.

Chance in Physics, Computer Science and Philosophy

Chance in Physics, Computer Science and Philosophy

Author: Walter Hehl

Publisher:

ISBN: 3658351136

Category:

Page: 0

View: 103

Chance is uncanny to us. We thought it didn't exist, that God or a reasonable explanation was behind everything. But we know today: It exists. We know that much of what surrounds us and which we do not see through, nevertheless runs causally. Unlike what was thought in the days of the Enlightenment, chance is the rule around us rather than lawful order. The clouds are stochastic fractals, the waves on the sea are pure random machinery. The philosopher Charles Peirce recognized the fundamental importance of chance in precisely this sense even before quantum and chaos theory, and gave the doctrine its name: Tychism. This book is a translation of the original German 1st edition Der Zufall in Physik, Informatik und Philosophie by Walter Hehl, published by Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, part of Springer Nature in 2021. The translation was done with the help of artificial intelligence (machine translation by the service DeepL.com). A subsequent human revision was done primarily in terms of content, so that the book will read stylistically differently from a conventional translation. Springer Nature works continuously to further the development of tools for the production of books and on the related technologies to support the authors. Without chance there would be nothing new, no life, no creativity, no history. This book looks at chance from the perspective of physics, computer science, and philosophy. It spans from antiquity to quantum physics and shows that chance is hard-wired into the world and that it would not exist without chance. The Author Dr. Walter Hehl is a versatile physicist and author of quite a few different books on IT, management, religion, philosophy and the history of science. His book on Galileo received the 2019 Woitschach Foundation Award for the best critical but fair science book.