Modern Chinese Parts of Speech

Modern Chinese Parts of Speech

Author: Guo Rui

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351269186

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 208

View: 383

What is the essence of a part of speech? Why is it difficult to classify parts of speech? What are the bases and criteria for classifying them? How should they be classified? In doing so, how should a conversional word be dealt with? How should nomonalization be treated? These are just some of the questions answered in this book. The classification of parts of speech in Chinese is a tough job due to the language's lack of morphological differences. Based on the analysis of nearly 40,000 Chinese characters, this book proposes that, essentially, a part of speech is not of distributional type and that its intrinsic basis is an expressional function and the semantic type. Essentially, large categories such as substantive words, predicate words and modification words are classes of words classified according to their expressional functions. Basic categories such as nouns, verbs and adjectives are classes that combine semantic types with syntactical functions. In classifying parts of speech, the book pays attention not to identifying a single distributive characteristic that is internally universal and externally exclusive but to clustering the grammatical functions that have the same classification value through the “reflection-representation” relationship among distribution, expressional function and semantic type (distribution reflects expressional function and semantic type, which are, in turn, represented as distribution), thereby identifying the classification criteria. It uses distributional compatibility and the correlation principle to analyze which distributional differences represent differences in parts of speech and which do not. In this way, grammatical functions that have equal classification values are collected into one equivalent function cluster, each of which represents one part of speech. The book uses four strategies to classify parts of speech, namely the homogeneity strategy, the homomorphical strategy, the priority homomorphical strategy and the consolidation strategy. It will be a valuable reference for Chinese linguistic researchers and students as well as Chinese learners.

Modern Chinese Parts of Speech

Modern Chinese Parts of Speech

Author: Guo Rui

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351269148

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 258

View: 684

Classification of parts of speech in Chinese is tough due to the lack of morphological differences, and thus is short of in-depth investigation and exploration. Based on the analysis and research of nearly 40,000 Chinese characters, this book elaborates on the system of Chinese parts of speech and proposes a set of criteria on their classification, contributing to relevant theoretical and methodological studies. To begin with, it examines the common characteristics and internal hierarchies of parts of speech, as well as the relationship between grammatical functions and parts of speech in modern Chinese. Then it puts forward the criteria on the classification of Chinese parts of speech, with a descriptive explanation of around 20 parts of speech. Besides, it illustrates the statistical studies on Chinese parts of speech, offering data support and corpus verification to the criteria. Also, it analyses the system of Chinese parts of speech from the perspective of typology. Specifically, it elucidates the correspondence between syntactic positions and parts of speech, functional differentiation of Chinese word items, etc. This book will be a valuable reference to researchers and students in Chinese linguistics. Learners of Chinese will also be attracted by it.

Essentials of Modern Chinese, with traditional Chinese example sentences

Essentials of Modern Chinese, with traditional Chinese example sentences

Author: Shaoxian Wen

Publisher: Everflow Publications

ISBN: 9789888174416

Category: Foreign Language Study

Page: 268

View: 743

In order to help foreign learners to learn the essentials of written Chinese more effectively, this book is compiled in a brand-new pattern and up-to-date manner. Meticulous work has been done to simplify the complicated framework of Chinese so that the English-speaking learners will find it easy to learn. The book, which consists of 18 chapters, discusses all the essentials of basic Chinese in a comprehensive and systematical way. Chinese auxiliaries, classifiers and word groups which so often puzzle the westerners, as well as the structures of Chinese sentences and the rules of their construction, are dealt with minutely by giving numerous illustrative sentences along with their English translation. Special paragraphs are devoted to comparison between Chinese and English where necessary. This book adopts the system of Chinese grammatical terms, definition and classification prevailing in various types of schools in China universally accepted by the Chinese people as a whole. Lastly, this book is designed to be a practical work for the foreign learners who have already mastered a certain number of Chinese words and expressions and the simple rules of Chinese grammar. It is suitable for work in class and for students or self-learners working on their own.

Essentials of Modern Chinese, with simplified Chinese example sentences

Essentials of Modern Chinese, with simplified Chinese example sentences

Author: Shaoxian Wen

Publisher: Everflow Publications

ISBN: 9789888174409

Category: Foreign Language Study

Page: 270

View: 462

In order to help foreign learners to learn the essentials of written Chinese more effectively, this book is compiled in a brand-new pattern and up-to-date manner. Meticulous work has been done to simplify the complicated framework of Chinese so that the English-speaking learners will find it easy to learn. The book, which consists of 18 chapters, discusses all the essentials of basic Chinese in a comprehensive and systematical way. Chinese auxiliaries, classifiers and word groups which so often puzzle the westerners, as well as the structures of Chinese sentences and the rules of their construction, are dealt with minutely by giving numerous illustrative sentences along with their English translation. Special paragraphs are devoted to comparison between Chinese and English where necessary. This book adopts the system of Chinese grammatical terms, definition and classification prevailing in various types of schools in China universally accepted by the Chinese people as a whole. Lastly, this book is designed to be a practical work for the foreign learners who have already mastered a certain number of Chinese words and expressions and the simple rules of Chinese grammar. It is suitable for work in class and for students or self-learners working on their own.

Modern Chinese Lexicology

Modern Chinese Lexicology

Author: Ge Benyi

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351269506

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 232

View: 522

Centring on "words" which connect vocabulary and semantic morphemes, this book makes a systemic and in-depth analysis on the study of modern Chinese lexicology. Firstly, it clarifies the definitions and properties of vocabulary, words and semantic morphemes in Chinese. Then the structure forms of Chinese words are examined. It is worth noting that this research is one of the first to distinguish word formation and lexical morphology. It observes that word formation studies how neologisms are coined, while lexical morphology refers to the ways in which semantic morphemes are combined with each other. On word meaning and its clustering, it discusses the relationship between word meaning and concept, as well as the criteria and principles of the clustering. Specifically, it studies monosemes, polysemes, synonyms, near-synonyms, antonyms, etc., including their characteristics and types. Lastly, it explores the evolution of word meaning and its laws, as well as the dynamic form of vocabulary. This book will be a valuable reference for scholars and students in linguistics, especially in Chinese lexical studies.

Chinese Lexical Semantics

Chinese Lexical Semantics

Author: Jia-Fei Hong

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030381899

Category: Computers

Page: 861

View: 305

This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-workshop proceedings of the 20th Chinese Lexical Semantics Workshop, CLSW 2019, held in Chiayi, Taiwan, in June 2019. The 39 full papers and 46 short papers included in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 254 submissions. They are organized in the following topical sections: lexical semantics; applications of natural language processing; lexical resources; corpus linguistics.

Chinese Lexical Semantics

Chinese Lexical Semantics

Author: Donghong Ji

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783642363375

Category: Computers

Page: 838

View: 102

This book constitutes carefully reviewed and revised selected papers from the 13th Chinese Lexical Semantics Workshop, CLSW 2012, held in Wuhan, China, in July 2012. The 67 full papers and 17 short papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 169 submissions. They are organized in topical sections named: applications on natural language processing; corpus linguistics; lexical computation; lexical resources; lexical semantics; new methods for lexical semantics; and other topics.

The History of Modern Chinese Grammar Studies

The History of Modern Chinese Grammar Studies

Author: Peter Peverelli

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783662465042

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 204

View: 816

This book discusses the way Chinese scholars developed a national grammar. Chinese didn’t develop grammar until China’s contact with Western grammar books in the 19th Century. The first indigenous grammar was published in 1889. It included some traditional notions, but mainly imitated European grammar. It was followed by a number of other similar works. To move away from this imitation, a group of grammarians started to look into the Chinese tradition of commenting on classics. This led to a variety of alternative grammars. After the war, Western linguistics started to gain influence in China. With the establishment of the PRC in 1949, efforts began to have a standard grammar adopted nationwide. The first attempt at such a grammar was published in 1956. This book spans the period 1898 – 1956.This book combines historiography and linguistics to distinguish different periods in the timespan covered. It shows how the development of a national grammar cannot be studied separately from language policies and discussions on the national language. The description of each period includes a general introduction of the relevant events in that period and a treatment of the major works of grammar.

Knowledge Science, Engineering and Management

Knowledge Science, Engineering and Management

Author: Christos Douligeris

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030295639

Category: Computers

Page: 429

View: 115

This two-volume set of LNAI 11775 and LNAI 11776 constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Knowledge Science, Engineering and Management, KSEM 2019, held in Athens, Greece, in August 2019. The 77 revised full papers and 23 short papers presented together with 10 poster papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 240 submissions. The papers of the first volume are organized in the following topical sections: Formal Reasoning and Ontologies; Recommendation Algorithms and Systems; Social Knowledge Analysis and Management ; Data Processing and Data Mining; Image and Video Data Analysis; Deep Learning; Knowledge Graph and Knowledge Management; Machine Learning; and Knowledge Engineering Applications. The papers of the second volume are organized in the following topical sections: Probabilistic Models and Applications; Text Mining and Document Analysis; Knowledge Theories and Models; and Network Knowledge Representation and Learning.

The Language Situation in China

The Language Situation in China

Author: Li Yuming

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 9781614512530

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 467

View: 833

China, with the world's largest population, numerous ethnic groups and vast geographical space, is also rich in languages. Since 2006, China's State Language Commission has been publishing annual reports on what is called "language life" in China. These reports cover language policy and planning invitatives at the national, provincial and local levels, new trends in language use in a variety of social domains, and major events concerning languages in mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan. Now for the first time, these reports are available in English for anyone interested in Chinese language and linguistics, China's languge, education and social policies, as well as everyday language use among the ordinary people in China. The invaluable data contained in these reports provide an essential reference to researchers, professionals, policy makers, and China watchers.

A Study of Cultural Interaction and Linguistic Contact

A Study of Cultural Interaction and Linguistic Contact

Author: Keiichi Uchida

Publisher: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht

ISBN: 9783847006992

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 281

View: 608

This study is an attempt to reorient the field of Chinese linguistics from the perspective of the new field of cultural interaction studies. The author, approaching Chinese linguistics from the periphery, examines such topics as the spread of Western learning and linguistic contact and Westerners’ study of Chinese: He studies materials produced by Western missionaries and Ryukyuan materials to show the validity and usefulness of Chinese linguistics in the field of cultural interaction studies. In addition, he looks at cultural interaction through illustrations.

Chinese Lexical Semantics

Chinese Lexical Semantics

Author: Qin Lu

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319271941

Category: Computers

Page: 724

View: 970

This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-workshop proceedings of the 16th Chinese Lexical Semantics Workshop, CLSW 2015, held in Beijing, China, in May 2015. The 64 regular and 4 short papers included in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 248 submissions. They are organized in topical sections named: lexical semantics; lexical resources; lexicology; natural language processing and applications; and syntax.