From the front jacket flap: Contrary to widespread expectations in the wake of Sputnik, outer space did not immediately become a new arena for a superpower arms competition. Although the United States and the Soviet Union began to use space extensively for military purposes, both exhibited relatively little interest in the development of space weaponry. By the beginning of the 1980s, however, an arms race in space seemed inevitable. Now both the United States and the Soviet Union have developed the means to disable satellites and are now also considering the deployment of ballistic missile defenses in space. Why were these weapons never extensively developed earlier? What changed in the late 1970s to reverse the predominant trend in the militarization of space? What are the lessons for arms control and for Soviet-American relations in general? Paul Stares addresses these fundamental questions by examining the factors that have shaped United States policy towards the military use of space and in particular the development of antisatellite weapons. States relies heavily on declassified documents found in Presidential libraries and made available under the Freedom of Information Act, and he obtained additional information from a comprehensive series of interview with former members of the U.S. government and armed services. By judicious use of this material, he provides the first detailed account of United States space weapons policy and programs. An invaluable source of information for defense analysts and scholars of international relations, The Militarization of Space is essential reading for anyone wishing to understand present United States military space policy and its implications for the future.
The militarization of space began as a rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union and grew to enormous proportions during the height of the Cold War. Satellite reconnaissance, navigation and weapons guidance, and electronic intelligence comprise only a few of the efforts taken to militarize and dominate space. Today as the prominence of information technology, computing, and telecommunications advances, so does the concept of space as a battlefield. In The Militarization and Weaponization of Space, Matthew Mowthorpe diligently analyzes the military space policies of the United States, the Soviet Union/Russia, and the People's Republic of China from the Cold War period to the present day. Mowthorpe focuses on the development of the ballistic missile defense and other anti-satellite systems and aptly assesses to what degree space will become armed. This work cogently addresses an issue of increasing urgency to scholars of international politics.
Militarizing Outer Space explores the dystopian and destructive dimensions of the Space Age and challenges conventional narratives of a bipolar Cold War rivalry. Concentrating on weapons, warfare and violence, this provocative volume examines real and imagined endeavors of arming the skies and conquering the heavens. The third and final volume in the groundbreaking European Astroculture trilogy, Militarizing Outer Space zooms in on the interplay between security, technopolitics and knowledge from the 1920s through the 1980s. Often hailed as the site of heavenly utopias and otherworldly salvation, outer space transformed from a promised sanctuary to a present threat, where the battles of the future were to be waged. Astroculture proved instrumental in fathoming forms and functions of warfare’s futures past, both on earth and in space. The allure of dominating outer space, the book shows, was neither limited to the early twenty-first century nor to current American space force rhetorics.
Weapons in Space examines how the United States is forcing forward—in violation of international treaties—to militarize space. Based on excerpts from U.S. government documents, award-winning investigative journalist Karl Grossman outlines the U.S. military's space doctrine, its similarity with the original Stars Wars scheme of Ronald Reagan and Edward Teller, and the space-based lasers, hypervelocity guns, and particle beams it plans to deploy in its mission to "dominate" earth. Grossman shows the intimate link between the militarization and the nuclearization of space, and follows the flow of billions of U.S. tax dollars to the corporations that research and develop weapons for space. His book explains the Outer Space Treaty and gives a history of the Global Network Against Weapons and Nuclear power in Space: what it is doing, what it plans to do—and what the reader can do to challenge U.S. plans to turn the heavens into a war zone.
Ahmad Khan's study explores an extremely important and topical subject of weaponization of Outer Space which has potentially devastating consequences for peace and stability in the international order. He traces the historical origin of the competition between two former Cold War Competitors: the United States and the Soviet Union. He highlights the dangers associated with the militarization of space for international peace. Regretfully, PAROS Treaty which is on the agenda of CD in Geneva as one of the primary concerns of the international community is not making satisfactory progress. His work emphasizes that the strategic importance of the Outer Space-the common human heritage-is enormous for the all states with regards to its commercial utilization and many other peaceful uses but, unfortunately the major powers emphasize on the military use of the outer space has really triggered another form of arms race in outer space despite the end of the Cold War. He concludes that the need of the hour for the international community is to assert its efforts to put embargo on the weaponization of the outer space. -Dr. Zafar Iqbal Cheema
This book, first published in 1985, analyses the factors that have shaped the militarization of space. By examining in great detail the determinants of U.S. policy, it explains why for over 25 years space did not become the scene of an arms race, and why this began to change in the late 1970s. Both superpowers did, however, develop a limited anti-satellite capability in the 1960s, and these programmes are also discussed.
The book analyses a broad range of relevant aspects as the outer space and cyber space domain do not only present analogies but are also strongly interrelated. This may occur on various levels by technologies but also in regard to juridical approaches, each nevertheless keeping its particularities. Since modern societies rely increasingly on space applications that depend on cyber space, it is important to investigate how cyberspace and outer space are connected by their common challenges. Furthermore, this book discusses not only questions around their jurisdictions, but also whether the private space industry can escape jurisdiction by dematerializing the space resource commercial processes and assets thanks to cyber technology. In addition, space and cyberspace policies are analysed especially in view of cyber threats to space communications. Even the question of an extra-terrestrial citizenship in outer space and cyberspace may raise new views. Finally, the interdependence between space and cyberspace also has an important role to play in the context of increasing militarization and emerging weaponization of outer space. Therefore, this book invites questioning the similarities and interrelations between Outer Space and Cyber Space in the same way as it intends to strengthen them.
Outer Space being the highest possible entity available to man has all the potentials to become a prized military strategic asset. The ever rapid advancement of Space Technology can help realize this potential of outer space, which if consolidated upon can be an apocalyptical situation for mankind. With Nation States focusing more and more on preserving their national security interests post World War II, rapid pace of militarization of outer space by major space faring nations, could lay down the foundation for a speculated World War III. The 21st Century has seen the Space faring nations engaged into a constant debate leading to a tussle between them with regard to the need for prohibition in placement of weapons in outer space. With consensus seeming impossible to be achieved in the near future, this paper tries to analyze the recent developments of the proposed legal instruments to curb the issue of weaponization of outer space and comes out with the observation of best possible option that can be chosen in the present scenario. The paper concludes with the viewpoint of a developing space power like India and the possible stance of the same on the issue of weapons in space.
In the clash of ideologies represented by the Cold War, even the heavens were not immune to militarization. Satellites and space programs became critical elements among the national security objectives of both the United States and the Soviet Union. According to US Presidents and the Militarization of Space, 1946–1967, three American presidents in succession shared a fundamental objective of preserving space as a weapons-free frontier for the benefit of all humanity. Between 1953 and 1967 Presidents Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Johnson all saw nonaggressive military satellite development, as well as the civilian space program, as means to favorably shape the international community’s opinion of the scientific, technological, and military capabilities of the United States. Sean N. Kalic’s reinterpretation of the development of US space policy, based on documents declassified in the past decade, demonstrates that a single vision for the appropriate uses of space characterized American strategies across parties and administrations during this period. Significantly, Kalic’s findings contradict the popular opinion that the United States sought to weaponize space and calls into question the traditional interpretation of the space race as a simple action/reaction paradigm. Indeed, beyond serving as a symbol and ambassador of US technological capability, its satellite program provided the United States with advanced, nonaggressive military intelligence-gathering platforms that proved critical in assessing the strategic nuclear balance between the United States and the Soviet Union. It also aided the three administrations in countering the Soviet Union’s increasing international prestige after its series of space firsts, beginning with the launch of Sputnik in 1957.
The world faces numerous security concerns---from nuclear proliferation to terrorism to climate change---that cannot be resolved by one nation alone, And unilateral military force will not defeat transnational threats. In this era of global challenges, one issue requires urgent attention that is "Out of this world": the militarization of space. --