Familiarize yourself with probabilistic graphical models through real-world problems and illustrative code examples in R About This Book Predict and use a probabilistic graphical models (PGM) as an expert system Comprehend how your computer can learn Bayesian modeling to solve real-world problems Know how to prepare data and feed the models by using the appropriate algorithms from the appropriate R package Who This Book Is For This book is for anyone who has to deal with lots of data and draw conclusions from it, especially when the data is noisy or uncertain. Data scientists, machine learning enthusiasts, engineers, and those who curious about the latest advances in machine learning will find PGM interesting. What You Will Learn Understand the concepts of PGM and which type of PGM to use for which problem Tune the model's parameters and explore new models automatically Understand the basic principles of Bayesian models, from simple to advanced Transform the old linear regression model into a powerful probabilistic model Use standard industry models but with the power of PGM Understand the advanced models used throughout today's industry See how to compute posterior distribution with exact and approximate inference algorithms In Detail Probabilistic graphical models (PGM, also known as graphical models) are a marriage between probability theory and graph theory. Generally, PGMs use a graph-based representation. Two branches of graphical representations of distributions are commonly used, namely Bayesian networks and Markov networks. R has many packages to implement graphical models. We'll start by showing you how to transform a classical statistical model into a modern PGM and then look at how to do exact inference in graphical models. Proceeding, we'll introduce you to many modern R packages that will help you to perform inference on the models. We will then run a Bayesian linear regression and you'll see the advantage of going probabilistic when you want to do prediction. Next, you'll master using R packages and implementing its techniques. Finally, you'll be presented with machine learning applications that have a direct impact in many fields. Here, we'll cover clustering and the discovery of hidden information in big data, as well as two important methods, PCA and ICA, to reduce the size of big problems. Style and approach This book gives you a detailed and step-by-step explanation of each mathematical concept, which will help you build and analyze your own machine learning models and apply them to real-world problems. The mathematics is kept simple and each formula is explained thoroughly.
This book brings together important topics of current research in probabilistic graphical modeling, learning from data and probabilistic inference. Coverage includes such topics as the characterization of conditional independence, the learning of graphical models with latent variables, and extensions to the influence diagram formalism as well as important application fields, such as the control of vehicles, bioinformatics and medicine.
At the crossroads between statistics and machine learning, probabilistic graphical models provide a powerful formal framework to model complex data. For instance, Bayesian networks and Markov random fields are two of the most popular probabilistic graphical models. With the rapid advance of high-throughput technologies and their ever decreasing costs, a fast-growing volume of biological data of various types - the so-called ''omics'' - is in need of accurate andefficient methods for modeling, prior to further downstream analysis. As probabilistic graphical models are able to deal with high-dimensional data, it is foreseeable that such models will have aprominent role to play in advances in genome-wide data analyses. Currently, few people are specialists in the design of cutting-edge methods using probabilistic graphical models for genetics, genomics and postgenomics. This seriously hinders the diffusion of such methods. The prime aim of the book is therefore to bring the concepts underlying these advanced models within reach of scientists who are not specialists of these models, but with no concession on theinformativeness of the book. The target readers include researchers and engineers who have to design novel methods for postgenomics data analysis, as well as graduate students starting a Masters or a PhD. Inaddition to an introductory chapter on probabilistic graphical models, a thorough review chapter focusing on selected domains in genetics and fourteen chapters illustrate the design of such advanced approaches in various domains: gene network inference, inference of causal phenotype networks, association genetics, epigenetics, detection of copy number variations, and prediction of outcomes from high-dimensional genomic data. Notably, most examples also illustrate that probabilistic graphicalmodels are well suited for integrative biology and systems biology, hot topics guaranteed to be of lasting interest.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Probabilistic Graphical Models, PGM 2014, held in Utrecht, The Netherlands, in September 2014. The 38 revised full papers presented in this book were carefully reviewed and selected from 44 submissions. The papers cover all aspects of graphical models for probabilistic reasoning, decision making, and learning.
A graphical model is a statistical model that is represented by a graph. The factorization properties underlying graphical models facilitate tractable computation with multivariate distributions, making the models a valuable tool with a plethora of applications. Furthermore, directed graphical models allow intuitive causal interpretations and have become a cornerstone for causal inference. While there exist a number of excellent books on graphical models, the field has grown so much that individual authors can hardly cover its entire scope. Moreover, the field is interdisciplinary by nature. Through chapters by leading researchers from different areas, this handbook provides a broad and accessible overview of the state of the art. Key features: * Contributions by leading researchers from a range of disciplines * Structured in five parts, covering foundations, computational aspects, statistical inference, causal inference, and applications * Balanced coverage of concepts, theory, methods, examples, and applications * Chapters can be read mostly independently, while cross-references highlight connections The handbook is targeted at a wide audience, including graduate students, applied researchers, and experts in graphical models.
An intelligent agent interacting with the real world will encounter individual people, courses, test results, drugs prescriptions, chairs, boxes, etc., and needs to reason about properties of these individuals and relations among them as well as cope with uncertainty. Uncertainty has been studied in probability theory and graphical models, and relations have been studied in logic, in particular in the predicate calculus and its extensions. This book examines the foundations of combining logic and probability into what are called relational probabilistic models. It introduces representations, inference, and learning techniques for probability, logic, and their combinations. The book focuses on two representations in detail: Markov logic networks, a relational extension of undirected graphical models and weighted first-order predicate calculus formula, and Problog, a probabilistic extension of logic programs that can also be viewed as a Turing-complete relational extension of Bayesian networks.
A general framework for constructing and using probabilistic models of complex systems that would enable a computer to use available information for making decisions. Most tasks require a person or an automated system to reason—to reach conclusions based on available information. The framework of probabilistic graphical models, presented in this book, provides a general approach for this task. The approach is model-based, allowing interpretable models to be constructed and then manipulated by reasoning algorithms. These models can also be learned automatically from data, allowing the approach to be used in cases where manually constructing a model is difficult or even impossible. Because uncertainty is an inescapable aspect of most real-world applications, the book focuses on probabilistic models, which make the uncertainty explicit and provide models that are more faithful to reality. Probabilistic Graphical Models discusses a variety of models, spanning Bayesian networks, undirected Markov networks, discrete and continuous models, and extensions to deal with dynamical systems and relational data. For each class of models, the text describes the three fundamental cornerstones: representation, inference, and learning, presenting both basic concepts and advanced techniques. Finally, the book considers the use of the proposed framework for causal reasoning and decision making under uncertainty. The main text in each chapter provides the detailed technical development of the key ideas. Most chapters also include boxes with additional material: skill boxes, which describe techniques; case study boxes, which discuss empirical cases related to the approach described in the text, including applications in computer vision, robotics, natural language understanding, and computational biology; and concept boxes, which present significant concepts drawn from the material in the chapter. Instructors (and readers) can group chapters in various combinations, from core topics to more technically advanced material, to suit their particular needs.
Probabilistic Graphical Models for Computer Vision introduces probabilistic graphical models (PGMs) for computer vision problems and teaches how to develop the PGM model from training data. This book discusses PGMs and their significance in the context of solving computer vision problems, giving the basic concepts, definitions and properties. It also provides a comprehensive introduction to well-established theories for different types of PGMs, including both directed and undirected PGMs, such as Bayesian Networks, Markov Networks and their variants. Discusses PGM theories and techniques with computer vision examples Focuses on well-established PGM theories that are accompanied by corresponding pseudocode for computer vision Includes an extensive list of references, online resources and a list of publicly available and commercial software Covers computer vision tasks, including feature extraction and image segmentation, object and facial recognition, human activity recognition, object tracking and 3D reconstruction
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Scalable Uncertainty Management, SUM 2018, which was held in Milan, Italy, in October 2018. The 23 full, 6 short papers and 2 tutorials presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 37 submissions. The conference is dedicated to the management of large amounts of complex, uncertain, incomplete, or inconsistent information. New approaches have been developed on imprecise probabilities, fuzzy set theory, rough set theory, ordinal uncertainty representations, or even purely qualitative models.
This fully updated new edition of a uniquely accessible textbook/reference provides a general introduction to probabilistic graphical models (PGMs) from an engineering perspective. It features new material on partially observable Markov decision processes, graphical models, and deep learning, as well as an even greater number of exercises. The book covers the fundamentals for each of the main classes of PGMs, including representation, inference and learning principles, and reviews real-world applications for each type of model. These applications are drawn from a broad range of disciplines, highlighting the many uses of Bayesian classifiers, hidden Markov models, Bayesian networks, dynamic and temporal Bayesian networks, Markov random fields, influence diagrams, and Markov decision processes. Topics and features: Presents a unified framework encompassing all of the main classes of PGMs Explores the fundamental aspects of representation, inference and learning for each technique Examines new material on partially observable Markov decision processes, and graphical models Includes a new chapter introducing deep neural networks and their relation with probabilistic graphical models Covers multidimensional Bayesian classifiers, relational graphical models, and causal models Provides substantial chapter-ending exercises, suggestions for further reading, and ideas for research or programming projects Describes classifiers such as Gaussian Naive Bayes, Circular Chain Classifiers, and Hierarchical Classifiers with Bayesian Networks Outlines the practical application of the different techniques Suggests possible course outlines for instructors This classroom-tested work is suitable as a textbook for an advanced undergraduate or a graduate course in probabilistic graphical models for students of computer science, engineering, and physics. Professionals wishing to apply probabilistic graphical models in their own field, or interested in the basis of these techniques, will also find the book to be an invaluable reference. Dr. Luis Enrique Sucar is a Senior Research Scientist at the National Institute for Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics (INAOE), Puebla, Mexico. He received the National Science Prize en 2016.
What is computational intelligence (CI)? Traditionally, CI is understood as a collection of methods from the ?elds of neural networks (NN), fuzzy logic and evolutionary computation. Various de?nitions and opinions exist, but what belongs to CI is still being debated; see, e.g., [1–3]. More recently there has been a proposal to de?ne the CI not in terms of the tools but in terms of challenging problems to be solved . With this edited volume I have made an attempt to give a representative sample of contemporary CI activities in automotive applications to illustrate the state of the art. While CI researchand achievements in some specialized ?elds described (see, e.g., [5, 6]), this is the ?rst volume of its kind dedicated to automotive technology. As if re?ecting the general lack of consensus on what constitutes the ?eld of CI, this volume 1 illustrates automotive applications of not only neural and fuzzy computations which are considered to be the “standard” CI topics, but also others, such as decision trees, graphicalmodels, Support Vector Machines (SVM), multi-agent systems, etc. This book is neither an introductory text, nor a comprehensive overview of all CI research in this area. Hopefully, as a broad and representative sample of CI activities in automotive applications, it will be worth reading for both professionals and students. When the details appear insu?cient, the reader is encouraged to consult other relevant sources provided by the chapter authors.
"This is a short, practical guide that allows data scientists to understand the concepts of Graphical models and enables them to try them out using small Python code snippets, without being too mathematically complicated. If you are a data scientist who knows about machine learning and want to enhance your knowledge of graphical models, such as Bayes network, in order to use them to solve real-world problems using Python libraries, this book is for you.This book is intended for those who have some Python and machine learning experience, or are exploring the machine learning field."