This volume reports the results of ESPRIT project 2463ARGOSI (Applications Related Graphics and OSI StandardsIntegration). The project ran from 1989 to 1992 and itsobjectives were to advance the state of the art in thetransfer of graphical information across internationalnetworks and to improve the quality of standards in thisarea. The results of the projectpresented in this bookinclude:- a classification scheme for applications in terms of theirrequirements for graphics and networking services;- an FTAM document type for CGM, which has been submittedfor international standardization;- contributions to the development of a mapping of the XWindows protocol onto an OSI stack;- contributions to the development of an ASI.1 notation forCGM and issues associated with the generation of CGMencodings for this;- experience of using CGM and FTAMfor a prototypeapplication running over public data networks.The book reports practical experience of an approach to thedesign and implementationof distributed applications usinggraphics and networking services in combination.
This monograph presents the still young, but already large and very active interdisciplinary realm of computer supported cooperative work (CSCW) in a systematic and well-balanced way. Besides technical progress also the cultural, social, legal, psychological and economic aspects of CSCW are discussed. The book makes accessible a wealth of information and culminates in the development and detailed discussion of a "Collaboratory" suitable to fulfil the needs of scientific cooperation in Europe. The book addresses CSCW research and development professionals as well as the general scientist interested in CSCW-based scientific cooperation. The bibliography with its more than 600 entries and the subject index are particularly comprehensive and helpful.
This final report on the Esprit project ORCHESTRA deals with the design and development of an advanced groupware environment. It provides a global perspective on the project from the technical, research and development, and marketing points of view.
The Commission of the European Union, through its Fourth Framework R&D programme is committed to the development of the Information Society. There is no doubt that there will be many radical changes in all aspects of society caused by the far-reaching impact of continuing advances in information and communi cation technologies. Many of these changes cannot be predicted, but that uncer tainty must not stop us from moving forward. The challenge is to ensure that these technologies are put to use in the most beneficial manner, taking fully into account the rich cultural and linguistic backgrounds within the peoples of Europe. We have a duty to ensure that the ultimate end-users of the technology are involved in the development and application of that technology to help shape its use. Without this active involvement, designers will not understand the individual and organisational requirements of the users, and the users will not understand the impact and applicability of the new technology. Failure on either account will lead to a sense of resentment on the part of the users and a lost opportunity to improve the quality of human life. The work, sponsored by the Human Comfort & Security sub-domain of the ESPRIT programme, has a central part to play in the creation of the Information Society, lying as it does at the interface between the technology and the user.
"User is king" is not a new concept, but it is certainly one that has gathered considerable momentum in the recent years. The driving force are the increasing and relentless pace of competition and the consequent attempts by many companies to keep and improve their marketshare. Since the beginning of ESPRIT Programme in 1984, the Human Computer Interface has been the subject of attention, in terms of technology development and utilisation of those technologies in various applications in the fields of Information Processing Systems, Computer Integrated Manufacturing, and Office and Business Systems. This topic area had been addressed in a number of different perspectives: user modelling, task analysis, cognitive aspects of interaction and assimilation of information, natural language speech and graphics, processing of multisensor information and its presentation, and a wide range of applications in which these technologies are used. In addition to the previous ESPRIT programmes, the specific programme for Information Technology of the European Framework Programme for 1994-1999 has recognised the ever increasing importance of "ease of use" in computer applications. The work programme on Human Comfort and Security is an attempt to address these issues. Its primary objectives are the exploitation of existing knowledge and expertise in usability engineering by integrating methods and tools into coherent toolsets, the generation of improved human computer interface components, demonstrating their application in practice, and widely disseminating the results and promoting the take-up of these technologies.
A number of important issues form the basis of this book: How can the Information Technology (IT) standardization process, leading to unified products which are needed on the market, be made more efficient? Which current IT standards are of high quality, what factors have led to that high quality, and can those factors be re-created for other IT standards? What improvements to the quality of IT standards are needed? Which organizations should be involved? What permanent changes in the IT standardization scene are necessary? At what point in the evolution of a technology is it appropriate to produce standards? Is strategic planning feasible in the current standardization approach? Diverse disciplines contributed to the findings in this book: computer scientists, standardization leaders and professionals, users and vendors, economists, auditors, software implementors, and communication specialists.
With about 200,000 entries, StarBriefs Plus represents the most comprehensive and accurately validated collection of abbreviations, acronyms, contractions and symbols within astronomy, related space sciences and other related fields. As such, this invaluable reference source (and its companion volume, StarGuides Plus) should be on the reference shelf of every library, organization or individual with any interest in these areas. Besides astronomy and associated space sciences, related fields such as aeronautics, aeronomy, astronautics, atmospheric sciences, chemistry, communications, computer sciences, data processing, education, electronics, engineering, energetics, environment, geodesy, geophysics, information handling, management, mathematics, meteorology, optics, physics, remote sensing, and so on, are also covered when justified. Terms in common use and/or of general interest have also been included where appropriate.
CIM - Mechanical Aspects: State of the Art Report contains different points of view about computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM). This report is organized into three parts: invited papers, analysis, and bibliography. The invited papers part examines various mechanical aspects of CIM. The analysis part assesses the major advances and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in CIM. Bibliography compiles the most important published material on the subject of mechanical aspects of CIM.
This book collects together several of the tutorials held at EUROGRAPHICS'89 in Hamburg. The conference was held under the motto "Integration, Visualisation, Interaction" and the tutorials reflect the conference theme. The Springer series EurographicSeminars with the volumes "Advances in Computer Graphics" regularly provides a professional update on current mainstream topics in the field. These publications give readers the opportunity to inform themselves thoroughly on the topics covered. The success of the series is mainly based on the expertise of the contributing authors, who are recognized professionals in their field. Starting out with one of the conference's main topics, the chapter "Visualization of Scientific Data" gives an overview of methods for displaying scientific results in an easily surveyable and comprehensible form. It presents algorithms and methods utilized to achieve visualization results in a form adequate for humans. User interfaces for such systems are also explored, and practical conclusions are drawn. The chapter "Color in Computer Graphics" describes the problems of manipulating and matching color in the real world. After some fundamental statements about color models and their relationships, the main emphasis is placed on the problem of objective color specification for computer graphics systems. It is very hard to match colors between devices such as scanners, printers and displays. Some suggestions on the effective use of color for graphics are also made.