This book provides useful information on microbial physiology and metabolism. The key aspects covered are prokaryotic diversity, growth physiology, basic metabolic pathways and their regulation, metabolic diversity with details of various unique pathways. Another focus area is stress physiology with details on varying environmental stresses, signal transduction, adaptation and survival. For instructional purposes, the book provides case studies, interesting facts, techniques etc. which help in showcasing the inter-disciplinary nature and bridge the gap between various aspects of applied microbiology.
Recent determination of genome sequences for a wide range of bacteria has made in-depth knowledge of prokaryotic metabolic function essential in order to give biochemical, physiological, and ecological meaning to the genomic information. Clearly describing the important metabolic processes that occur in prokaryotes under different conditions and in different environments, this advanced text provides an overview of the key cellular processes that determine bacterial roles in the environment, biotechnology, and human health. Prokaryotic structure is described as well as the means by which nutrients are transported into cells across membranes. Glucose metabolism through glycolysis and the TCA cycle are discussed, as well as other trophic variations found in prokaryotes, including the use of organic compounds, anaerobic fermentation, anaerobic respiratory processes, and photosynthesis. The regulation of metabolism through control of gene expression and control of the activity of enzymes is also covered, as well as survival mechanisms used under starvation conditions.
Background Bacteria use quorum sensing (QS) circuits to coordinate various activities (among which biofilm formation and the expression of virulence factors) based on the presence of signaling molecules. Different families of signal molecules have been identified in Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria (e.g. autoinducer peptides and acyl homoserine lactones). Similarly, different quorum sensing antagonists interfering with these system have been found in nature, promoting a new and promising field of research, quorum sensing interference. One of the most intensively studied applications of quorum sensing interference is its use as an alternative or synergycally with antibiotics to fight (antibiotic-resistant) bacterial pathogens. Many studies have been published claiming quorum sensing inhibitory activity of natural and synthetic compounds. However, after decades of research, several questions regarding the suitability of this approach to fight bacterial pathogens remain unanswered, including the risk that pathogens will develop resistance against quorum quenching. Meanwhile, the interest in quorum sensing has increased considerably, and this has broadened the fields where it can find biotechnological, environmental and industrial applications, such as anti biofouling, steering fermentations, bioremediation and wastewater treatment. Goal and scope The goal of this Research Topic is to broaden the knowledge of the phenotypes regulated by quorum sensing and the advances in quorum sensing interference. Deciphering microorganism language and the different phenotypes regulated by microbial signalling systems is a frontier for the development of new tools for the management of microorganisms to fulfil human needs with a broad application in different areas such as medicine, environmental sciences and industry.
Hazardous and Trace Materials in Soil and Plants: Sources, Effects and Management explores the latest advancements in reducing, avoiding and eliminating soil contaminants that challenge the health and safety of agricultural plants. With a focus on minimizing the production of those hazardous substances, controlling their distribution and ensuring safe utilization, the book explores each contributing area and provides insights toward improved, sustainable and secure production. This is an excellent reference resource on both current research and future directions from laboratory research to field applications. The combined impacts of climate change and industrialization have led to increased and diversified threats to the health of the soil in which our food crops are grown, as well as in the plants themselves. This dual-hazard scenario is increasingly recognized as a threat to not just the environment, but to global food security as agricultural soils contaminated with pollutants alter plant metabolism, thus resulting in reduced crop quality and production quantity. Addresses the challenges of mitigating toxic substances in plants, including agricultural crops Presents current status and future prospects for managing biotic and abiotic environmental stress factors through plant stress tolerance mechanisms Includes chapters that address both biotic and abiotic stresses, agricultural and environmental science, toxicology, biotechnology, nanotechnology, and molecular studies Integrates insights and developments between environmental and plant science
This book has been primarily designed for the undergraduate beginners in microbiology, who have little information about this subject. It contains all basic concepts and principles that a student should know about the different aspects of microbiology including recent developments in the area. This book also provides a comprehensive account of the microbial world including both general and applied aspects. The text, which has been organised into 20 chapters, includes historical aspects; general organization; structure and function of microbial cell; basic principles of microbial nutrition and growth; metabolism; biosynthesis of cellular components; microbial genetics and gene manipulation. Besides these topics, it also covers viruses and differentiation in micro-organisms and various aspects of applied microbiology such as mineral transformations in soil; microbes in industry; food microbiology and dairy microbiology. The book is also well illustrated.
A condensed, easier-to-understand student version of the acclaimed Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, Tietz Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, 7th Edition uses a laboratory perspective in providing the clinical chemistry fundamentals you need to work in a real-world, clinical lab. Coverage ranges from laboratory principles to analytical techniques and instrumentation, analytes, pathophysiology, and more. New content keeps you current with the latest developments in molecular diagnostics. From highly respected clinical chemistry experts Carl Burtis and David Bruns, this textbook shows how to select and perform diagnostic lab tests, and accurately evaluate results. Authoritative, respected author team consists of two well-known experts in the clinical chemistry world. Coverage of analytical techniques and instrumentation includes optical techniques, electrochemistry, electrophoresis, chromatography, mass spectrometry, enzymology, immunochemical techniques, microchips, automation, and point of care testing. Learning objectives begin each chapter, providing measurable outcomes to achieve after completing the material. Key words are listed and defined at the beginning of each chapter, and bolded in the text. A glossary at the end of the book makes it quick and easy to look up definitions of key terms. More than 500 illustrations plus easy-to-read tables help you understand and remember key concepts. New chapters on molecular diagnostics include the principles of molecular biology, nucleic acid techniques and applications, and genomes and nucleic acid alterations, reflecting the changes in this rapidly evolving field. New content on clinical evaluation of methods, kidney function tests, and diabetes is added to this edition. NEW multiple-choice review questions at the end of each chapter allow you to measure your comprehension of the material. NEW case studies on the Evolve companion website use real-life scenarios to reinforce concepts.
The 1st volume of our Research Topic "The Bacterial Cell: Coupling between Growth, Nucleoid Replication, Cell Division and Shape” was published as an eBook in May 2016 (see: http://journal.frontiersin.org/researchtopic/2905/the-bacterial-cell-coupling-between-growth-nucleoid-replication-cell-division-and-shape). As a sign of growing interest to the topic, two workshops followed the same year: "Stochasticity in the Cell Cycle" in Jerusalem (Israel) by the Hebrew University’s Institute of Advanced Studies and EMBO's "Cell Size Regulation" in Joachimsthal (Germany). From the time of launching the first edition, several new groups have entered the field, and many established groups have made significant advances using state-of-the-art microscopy and microfluidics. Combining these approaches with the techniques pioneered by quantitative microbiologists decades ago, these approaches have provided remarkable amounts of numerical data. Most of these data needed yet to be put into a broader theoretical perspective. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms governing coordination and progression of the main bacterial cell cycle processes have remained largely unknown. These outstanding fundamental questions and the growing interest to the field motivated us to launch the next volume titled “The Bacterial Cell: Coupling between Growth, Nucleoid Replication, Cell Division, and Shape, Volume 2” shortly after completion of the first edition in October 2016. The issue contains 17 contributions from a diverse array of scientists whose field of study spans microbiology, biochemistry, genetics, experimental and theoretical biophysics. The specific questions addressed in the issue include: What triggers initiation of chromosome replication? How is cell division coordinated with replication both spatially and temporally? How is cell size controlled and linked to the rate of mass growth? What role plays physical organization of the chromosomes in their segregation and in regulation of cell division? The publications covering these questions are divided into three topical areas: 1) Cell Cycle Regulation, 2) Growth and Division, and 3) Nucleoid Structure and Replication. New ideas and techniques put forward in these articles bring us closer to understand these fundamental cellular processes, but the quest to resolve them is far from being complete. Plans for the next edition are under way along with further meetings and workshops, e.g., an EMBO Workshop on Bacterial cell biophysics: DNA replication, growth, division, size and shape in Ein Gedi (Israel), May 2020. We hope that via such interdisciplinary exchange of ideas we will come closer to answering the above-mentioned complex and multifaceted questions.
A groundbreaking text and professional resource on naturalattenuation technology Natural attenuation is rapidly becoming a widely used approachto manage groundwater and soil contamination by hazardoussubstances in petroleum-product releases and leachate fromhazardous waste sites and landfills. This book provides, under onecover, the current methodologies needed by groundwater scientistsand engineers in their efforts to evaluate subsurface contaminationproblems, to estimate risk to human health and ecosystems throughmathematical models, and to design and formulate appropriateremediation strategies. Incorporating the authors' extensive backgrounds as educators,researchers, and consultants in environmental biotechnology andhydrogeology, the text emphasizes new concepts and recent advancesin the science, including: Quantification of the role of microbes in naturalattenuation Biodegradation and chemical transformation principles Immobilization and phase change Biotransformation mechanisms Groundwater flow and contaminant transport Analytical models for contaminant transport and reactionprocesses Numerical modeling of contaminant transport, transformation,and degradation Detailed descriptions of fundamental processes, characterizationapproaches, and analytical and numerical methods tied to relevantreal-world applications make Bioremediation and NaturalAttenuation: Process Fundamentals and Mathematical Models botha timely course text in hydrogeology and environmental engineeringand a valuable reference for anyone in the groundwater or riskassessment professions.
The book will highlight major trends and developments in the field of microbial fuels, with contributions from a number of highly experienced researchers. It will serve as a comprehensive reference for industrial stakeholders, scientists, researchers and graduate students interested in microbial fuels. The aims of this work are to present the technologies and perspectives taking into account different socio-economical contexts. A specific chapter will focus on the general perspectives of microbial fuels for low-income and emerging countries.
Striking a perfect balance, the Fifth Edition helps instructors convey exciting research in this rapidly evolving field while also motivating students to learn the fundamentals amid an overwhelming amount of information. Engaging examples, abundant eye-catching figures, updated genetics and genomics content by new coauthor Erik Zinser, an updated Smartwork5 course, and new active learning resources provide flexible options for high-quality assessment in and outside of class.
This book review series presents current trends in modern biotechnology. The aim is to cover all aspects of this interdisciplinary technology where knowledge, methods and expertise are required from chemistry, biochemistry, microbiology, genetics, chemical engineering and computer science. Volumes are organized topically and provide a comprehensive discussion of developments in the respective field over the past 3-5 years. The series also discusses new discoveries and applications. Special volumes are dedicated to selected topics which focus on new biotechnological products and new processes for their synthesis and purification. In general, special volumes are edited by well-known guest editors. The series editor and publisher will however always be pleased to receive suggestions and supplementary information. Manuscripts are accepted in English. /div