This book analyses the founding years of consumer law and consumer policy in Europe. It combines two dimensions: the making of national consumer law and the making of European consumer law, and how both are intertwined. The chapters on Germany, Italy, the Nordic countries and the United Kingdom serve to explain the economic and the political background which led to different legal and policy approaches in the then old Member States from the 1960s onwards. The chapter on Poland adds a different layer, the one of a former socialist country with its own consumer law and how joining the EU affected consumer law at the national level. The making of European consumer law started in the 1970s rather cautiously, but gradually the European Commission took an ever stronger position in promoting not only European consumer law but also in supporting the building of the European Consumer Organisation (BEUC), the umbrella organisation of the national consumer bodies. The book unites the early protagonists who were involved in the making of consumer law in Europe: Guido Alpa, Ludwig Krämer, Ewa Letowska, Hans-W Micklitz, Klaus Tonner, Iain Ramsay, and Thomas Wilhelmsson, supported by the younger generation Aneta Wiewiórowska Domagalska, Mateusz Grochowski, and Koen Docter, who reconstructs the history of BEUC. Niklas Olsen and Thomas Roethe analyse the construction of this policy field from a historical and sociological perspective. This book offers a unique opportunity to understand a legal and political field, that of consumer law and policy, which plays a fundamental role in our contemporary societies.
This book is a history of the some of the world's most famous brands, from humble beginnings to current exalted status, from smudged, kitchen-table pamphlets to $ multi-million ad campaigns, from backyard experiments to global research. It examines the most recent developments in these glittering trajectories and reveals the very DNA of the brands themselves. Is it mastery of absorbency, the virtuoso integration of acquisitions, developing incomparable consumer trust, the ability to think in decades? All is revealed. If you work in Retail, FMCG, Marketing or Consumer Goods, this is a must–read book. Keywords: FMCG , History, Manufactures, Brands, Innovation, Global, Consumer, Retail, Market, Emerging Markets, Coke, Colgate-Palmolive, Danone, Dean Foods, Estée Lauder, General Mills, Heinz, Henkel, Kellog, Kimberly-Clark, Kraft, L'Oréal, Mars, Nestlé, Procter & Gamble, Pepsi, Reckitt Benckiser, Unilever
Since 1945 Europe has experienced many periods of turmoil and conflict and as many moments of peace and integration: from the devastation felt in the aftermath of World War II to the recovery in the 1950s and 1960s; to the new challenges in the 1970s and 1980s when neoliberal policies led to fundamental social and economic changes, marked by the effects of the oil shock and widespread unemployment; and then 1989 and after when the existing world order experienced new convulsions. In this brilliant and comprehensive work, the author, one of the best known social historians of Europe, discusses a wide range of subjects, not shying away from controversial topics: family structure, work, consumption, values, migration, inequality, elites, civil society, social movements, media, welfare state, education, and urban policies. He focuses on the fundamental changes European societies underwent in the second half of the twentieth century but also explores what divides Europeans, what unites them, and what sets them apart from the rest of the world. This major historical work will be an important and highly sought-after addition for library collections as well as an important volume for course adoptions.
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This book presents a detailed analysis of the function of consumer product guarantees and the related legal issues. It applies research findings from the fields of consumer complaining behaviour, marketing science and economics to the legal context. Its central argument is that guarantees could be one way of assisting consumers in resolving product quality disputes. Consumers tend to seek to resolve such disputes informally by complaining, rather than by seeking to go through the courts or structured forms of alternative dispute resolution. Such complaints can be supported by encouraging reliance on consumer product guarantees, particularly where consumers also enjoy strong legal rights. With this in mind, the book develops a legal framework for consumer guarantees, which is based on two key principles: fairness and transparency. There then follows an analysis of English and EC provisions on guarantees, as well as of relevant US law. Particular consideration is given to the relationship between consumer guarantees and statutory rights.
The years between the Wars saw rapid and far-reaching changes to the character and distribution of the world’s trade. Governments of the world attempted to mould and control their own economies, and economic nationalism grew to unseen levels. This book, first published in 1938, is the comprehensive examination of the European tariffs of the time, and it traces their effects upon the actual course of trade, and in so doing, is one of the few factual studies on the reality of tariffs.