This book examines legal language as a language for special purposes, evaluating the functions and characteristics of legal language and the terminology of law. Using examples drawn from major and lesser legal languages, it examines the major legal languages themselves, beginning with Latin through German, French, Spanish and English. This second edition has been fully revised, updated and enlarged. A new chapter on legal Spanish takes into account the increasing importance of the language, and a new section explores the use (in legal circles) of the two variants of the Norwegian language. All chapters have been thoroughly updated and include more detailed footnote referencing. The work will be a valuable resource for students, researchers, and practitioners in the areas of legal history and theory, comparative law, semiotics, and linguistics. It will also be of interest to legal translators and terminologists.
This book introduces into the problems of Legal Linguistics. It starts with the most fundamental legal-linguistic question, i.e. how law is created and applied with linguistic means. In breaking down this vast question, the book identifies the linguistically relevant aspects of language use, especially its terminology, and scrutinizes the most significant legal-linguistic operations such as the legal argumentation, the legal interpretation, and the legal translation. Based on case analyses, it canvasses the language use strategies that are most instrumental in the developing of professionally convincing legal argumentation, primarily around terminological units. Towards the background of these and other linguistic operations in law, the book reflects upon some practical problems related to the regulation of language use and the emergence of the global law.
The world of law has changed in the last decades: it has become more globalized, multilingual and digital. The sections and contributions of this volume continue the interdisciplinary discussion about the challenges of this change for theory and practice of law and for the International Language and Law Association (ILLA) relaunched in 2017. First, the book gives a broad overview to the research field of legal linguistics, its history, research directions and open questions in different parts of the world (United States, Africa, Italy, Spain, Germany, Nordic countries and Russia). The second section consists of contributions about the relation of language, law and justice in a globalized world with a focus on multilingual and supranational law in the EU. The third section focuses on digitalization and mediatization of the law, the last section reports about the discussion at the ILLA relaunch conference in 2017.
What does it mean when civil lawyers and common lawyers think differently? In Charting the Divide between Common and Civil Law, Thomas Lundmark provides a comprehensive introduction to the uses, purposes, and approaches to studying civil and common law in a comparative legal framework. Superbly organized and exhaustively written, this volume covers the jurisdictions of Germany, Sweden, England and Wales, and the United States, and includes a discussion of each country's legal issues, structure, and their general rules. Professor Lundmark also explores the discipline of comparative legal studies, rectifying many of the misconceptions and prejudices that cloud our understanding of the divide between the common law and civil law traditions. Students of international law, comparative law, social philosophy, and legal theory will find this volume a valuable introduction to common and civil law. Lawyers, judges, political scientists, historians, and philosophers will also find this book valuable as a source of reference. Charting the Divide between Common and Civil Law equips readers with the background and tools to think critically about different legal systems and evaluate their future direction.
Until quite recently questions about methodology in legal research have been largely confined to understanding the role of doctrinal research as a scholarly discipline. In turn this has involved asking questions not only about coverage but, fundamentally, questions about the identity of the discipline. Is it (mainly) descriptive, hermeneutical, or normative? Should it also be explanatory? Legal scholarship has been torn between, on the one hand, grasping the expanding reality of law and its context, and, on the other, reducing this complex whole to manageable proportions. The purely internal analysis of a legal system, isolated from any societal context, remains an option, and is still seen in the approach of the French academy, but as law aims at ordering society and influencing human behaviour, this approach is felt by many scholars to be insufficient. Consequently many attempts have been made to conceive legal research differently. Social scientific and comparative approaches have proven fruitful. However, does the introduction of other approaches leave merely a residue of 'legal doctrine', to which pockets of social sciences can be added, or should legal doctrine be merged with the social sciences? What would such a broad interdisciplinary field look like and what would its methods be? This book is an attempt to answer some of these questions.
This book explores the ways language is used by the professional legal community for the communication of its main business - the negotiation of justice - in today’s globalized world. The volume addresses three main aspects of language use in the negotiation of justice. Beginning with the legal contexts of litigation, arbitration and mediation, the book moves on to discuss the main issues identified in those contexts and finally it explores the applications of legal linguistics. These three aspects are studied across the themes of analyses of legal discourse and genres, issues of power and ideology in the use of legal language, cross-cultural legal communication, questions of recontextualization, accessibility and plain language, law and disciplinary identity, and pedagogy of legal language. With chapters set across a variety of jurisdictions, the contributions offer analytical insights into the interface between law and language. The book is a valuable resource for those in the legal community wishing to increase their understanding of the use of language for the negotiation of justice.
In an era marked by processes of economic, political and legal integration that are arguably unprecedented in their range and impact, the translation of law has assumed a significance which it would be hard to overstate. The following situations are typical. A French law school is teaching French law in the English language to foreign exchange students. Some US legal scholars are exploring the possibility of developing a generic or transnational constitutional law. German judges are referring to foreign law in a criminal case involving an honour killing committed in Germany with a view to ascertaining the relevance of religious prescriptions. European lawyers are actively working on the creation of a common private law to be translated into the 24 official languages of the European Union. Since 2004, the World Bank has been issuing reports ranking the attractiveness of different legal cultures for doing business. All these examples raise in one way or the other the matter of translation from a comparative legal perspective. However, in today’s globalised world where the need to communicate beyond borders arises constantly in different guises, many comparatists continue not to address the issue of translation. This edited collection of essays brings together leading scholars from various cultural and disciplinary backgrounds who draw on fields such as translation studies, linguistics, literary theory, history, philosophy or sociology with a view to promoting a heightened understanding of the complex translational implications pertaining to comparative law, understood both in its literal and metaphorical senses.
"This book examines the best language fair trial practices of the courts in arguably the most multilingual region of the world. It contains an instructive list of standards and approaches to linguistic dynamics, which may be considered a Language Fair Trial Rights Code. By way of jurisprudential analysis and scrutiny of constitutional imperatives and examination of legislation among the respective jurisdictions from the Sahel region, the Horn of Africa, to the Cape, this publication presents peculiar country specific practices and common standards towards the realisation of a fair trial in a multilingual context. The exceptionally multilingual nature of legal processes in Africa makes the standards in the region instructive towards a universal language fair trial code. The book reveals valuable lessons across jurisdictions, including those outside of Africa, and suggests measures that may be taken to improve existing approaches. It will be a valuable resource for academics, researchers and policy-makers working in the areas of Law and Language, Legal Linguistics, Forensic Linguistics, Criminal Justice and Comparative Law"--
Publisher: Peter Lang Gmbh, Internationaler Verlag Der Wissenschaften
This book describes law from the perspective of its language. The author proposes a theory of the legal language as language used in legally relevant communicational situations. He focuses on legal-linguistic operations such as legal argumentation and legal interpretation that steer the legal discourse.
Comparative law scholars have long recognised the importance of looking beyond legal texts and incorporating interdisciplinary methods into the study of law, yet in practice such use of non-legal methods has remained modest. Interdisciplinary Comparative Law illuminates why the doctrinal approach to legal research has retained its strong position, offering a critical analysis of the difficulties of interdisciplinarity. Incisive and ambitious in scope, the book highlights why the comparative study of law benefits from employing the methods of other disciplines. Chapters explore the various ways in which different fields can learn from each other, taking a deep dive into the respective studies of legal history, linguistics, literature, economics, social theory, and international law. The result is a vibrant cross-section of the contrasts and parallels between the practices of law and other areas of research, demonstrating which are the easiest for comparatists to grasp and implement, and which present obstacles for the application of non-legal methods. This cutting-edge book is an essential read for advanced students and scholars of law and legal studies. Its diagnosis of interdisciplinarity as both a boon and bane in the study of law will be of especial interest to comparative law scholars.
This cutting-edge book facilitates debate amongst scholars in law, humanities and social sciences, where comparative methodology is far less well anchored in most areas compared to other research methods. It posits that these are disciplines in which comparative research is not simply a bonus, but is of the essence.
In this volume, scholars explore and discuss current issues in Theoretical Legal Linguistics (TLL) and Applied Legal Linguistics (ALL), contributing to the growing body of international research in the field. Focus is placed on the interconnected skills, tasks and approaches to the study of legal language in its plethora of facets as presented at the first international conference and the second International Legal Linguistics Workshop (ILLWS19) of the Austrian Association for Legal Linguistics. The articles present research in the areas of contract interpretation, bijuralism, the European Reference Language System, clear language and communication in legal settings, issues in legal semantics, plain legal language in multilingual legislative drafting, legal language teaching, light verb constructions in legal German, forensic linguistic expert testimony, deontic modality in legislative drafting, migration and legal language, appeals in Russian and their qualification as language crimes, and graduation in the use of force statutes. The concepts, methods, and findings offer valuable insights into current research in legal linguistics.