Chance in Physics, Computer Science and Philosophy

Chance in Physics, Computer Science and Philosophy

Author: Walter Hehl

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783658351120

Category: Computers

Page: 281

View: 505

Chance is uncanny to us. We thought it didn't exist, that God or a reasonable explanation was behind everything. But we know today: It exists. We know that much of what surrounds us and which we do not see through, nevertheless runs causally. Unlike what was thought in the days of the Enlightenment, chance is the rule around us rather than lawful order. The clouds are stochastic fractals, the waves on the sea are pure random machinery. The philosopher Charles Peirce recognized the fundamental importance of chance in precisely this sense, even before quantum and chaos theory, and gave the doctrine its name: Tychism. Without chance there would be nothing new, no life, no creativity, no history. This book looks at chance from the perspective of physics, computer science, and philosophy. It spans from antiquity to quantum physics and shows that chance is firmly built into the world and that it would not exist without chance. This book is a translation of the original German 1st edition Der Zufall in Physik, Informatik und Philosophie by Walter Hehl, published by Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, part of Springer Nature in 2021. The translation was done with the help of artificial intelligence (machine translation by the service DeepL.com). A subsequent human revision was done primarily in terms of content, so that the book will read stylistically differently from a conventional translation. Springer Nature works continuously to further the development of tools for the production of books and on the related technologies to support the authors.

Chance in Physics, Computer Science and Philosophy

Chance in Physics, Computer Science and Philosophy

Author: Walter Hehl

Publisher:

ISBN: 3658351136

Category:

Page: 0

View: 469

Chance is uncanny to us. We thought it didn't exist, that God or a reasonable explanation was behind everything. But we know today: It exists. We know that much of what surrounds us and which we do not see through, nevertheless runs causally. Unlike what was thought in the days of the Enlightenment, chance is the rule around us rather than lawful order. The clouds are stochastic fractals, the waves on the sea are pure random machinery. The philosopher Charles Peirce recognized the fundamental importance of chance in precisely this sense even before quantum and chaos theory, and gave the doctrine its name: Tychism. This book is a translation of the original German 1st edition Der Zufall in Physik, Informatik und Philosophie by Walter Hehl, published by Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, part of Springer Nature in 2021. The translation was done with the help of artificial intelligence (machine translation by the service DeepL.com). A subsequent human revision was done primarily in terms of content, so that the book will read stylistically differently from a conventional translation. Springer Nature works continuously to further the development of tools for the production of books and on the related technologies to support the authors. Without chance there would be nothing new, no life, no creativity, no history. This book looks at chance from the perspective of physics, computer science, and philosophy. It spans from antiquity to quantum physics and shows that chance is hard-wired into the world and that it would not exist without chance. The Author Dr. Walter Hehl is a versatile physicist and author of quite a few different books on IT, management, religion, philosophy and the history of science. His book on Galileo received the 2019 Woitschach Foundation Award for the best critical but fair science book.

The Challenge of Chance

The Challenge of Chance

Author: Klaas Landsman

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319263007

Category: Science

Page: 276

View: 240

This book presents a multidisciplinary perspective on chance, with contributions from distinguished researchers in the areas of biology, cognitive neuroscience, economics, genetics, general history, law, linguistics, logic, mathematical physics, statistics, theology and philosophy. The individual chapters are bound together by a general introduction followed by an opening chapter that surveys 2500 years of linguistic, philosophical, and scientific reflections on chance, coincidence, fortune, randomness, luck and related concepts. A main conclusion that can be drawn is that, even after all this time, we still cannot be sure whether chance is a truly fundamental and irreducible phenomenon, in that certain events are simply uncaused and could have been otherwise, or whether it is always simply a reflection of our ignorance. Other challenges that emerge from this book include a better understanding of the contextuality and perspectival character of chance (including its scale-dependence), and the curious fact that, throughout history (including contemporary science), chance has been used both as an explanation and as a hallmark of the absence of explanation. As such, this book challenges the reader to think about chance in a new way and to come to grips with this endlessly fascinating phenomenon.

Contemporary Perspectives in Philosophy and Methodology of Science

Contemporary Perspectives in Philosophy and Methodology of Science

Author: Wenceslao J. González

Publisher: Netbiblo

ISBN: 0972989234

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 695

Nowadays, philosophy and methodology of science appear as a combination of novelty and continuity. This blend is clear both in the general approaches to science (those thought of as any science) and in the specific perspectives on every science, either formal or empirical. There are new topics for philosophical reflection, such as key issues in philosophy of medicine and central problems raised by neuroscience. Thus, new contents have brought attention to aspects that previously went almost unnoticed. In addition, there are new angles for philosophical study, such as the repercussion of society on scientific activity (in aims, processes, and results). But the background of the main philosophical and methodological trends of the twentieth century is, in many ways, still in place.

Levels of Reality in Science and Philosophy

Levels of Reality in Science and Philosophy

Author: Stavros Ioannidis

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030994259

Category: Electronic books

Page: 293

View: 753

This book offers a unique perspective on one of the deepest questions about the world we live in: is reality multi-leveled, or can everything be reduced to some fundamental 'flat' level? This deep philosophical issue has widespread implications in philosophy, since it is fundamental to how we understand the world and the basic entities in it. Both the notion of 'levels' within science and their ontological implications are issues that are underexplored in the philosophical literature. The volume reconsiders the view that reality contains many levels and opens new ways to understand the ontological status of the special sciences. The book focuses on major open questions that arise at the foundations of cognitive science, cognitive psychology, brain science and other special sciences, in particular with respect to the physical foundations of these sciences. For example: Is the mental computational? Do brains compute? How can the special sciences be autonomous from physics, grounded in, or based on, physics and at the same time irreducible to physics? The book is an important read for scientists and philosophers alike. It is of interest to philosophers of science, philosophers of mind and biology interested in the notion of levels, but also to psychologists, cognitive scientists and neuroscientists investigating such issues as the precise relation of the mental to the underlying neural structures and the appropriate approach to study it.

The Philosophy of Science

The Philosophy of Science

Author: Anouk Barberousse

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780190690663

Category: Science

Page: 688

View: 755

Philosophy of science studies the methods, theories, and concepts used by scientists. It mainly developed as a field in its own right during the twentieth century and is now a diversified and lively research area. This book surveys the current state of the discipline by focusing on central themes like confirmation of scientific hypotheses, scientific explanation, causality, the relationship between science and metaphysics, scientific change, the relationship between philosophy of science and science studies, the role of theories and models, unity of science. These themes define general philosophy of science. The book also presents sub-disciplines in the philosophy of science dealing with the main sciences: logic, mathematics, physics, biology, medicine, cognitive science, linguistics, social sciences, and economics. While it is common to address the specific philosophical problems raised by physics and biology in such a book, the place assigned to the philosophy of special sciences is much more unusual. Most authors collaborate on a regular basis in their research or teaching and share a common vision of philosophy of science and its place within philosophy and academia in general. The chapters have been written in close accordance with the three editors, thus achieving strong unity of style and tone.

Bridging the Gap between Life and Physics

Bridging the Gap between Life and Physics

Author: Ron Cottam

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319745336

Category: Science

Page: 338

View: 209

This is the only book which deals with the correlatory comparison between hierarchical living systems and inorganic physical ones. The culmination of the book is the proposition of research to discover and understand the natural underlying level of organization which produces the descriptive commonality of life and physics. Traditional science eliminates life from its purview by its rejection of interrelationships as a primary content of systems. The conventional procedure of science is that of reductionism, whereby complex systems are dismantled to characterize lower level components, but virtually no attention is given to how to rebuild those systems—the underlying assumption is that analysis and synthesis are symmetrical. This book fulfills two main coupled functions. Firstly, it details hierarchy as the major formulation of natural complex systems and investigates the fundamental character of natural hierarchy as a widely transferable ‘container’ of structure and/or function – and this in the case of the new development of a representational or model hierarchy. Secondly, it couples this hierarchical description to that of the electronic properties of semiconductors, as a well-modeled canonical example of physical properties. The central thesis is that these two descriptions are comparable, if care is taken to treat logical and epistemological aspects with prudence: a large part of the book is composed of just this aspect of care for grounding consistency. As such great attention is given to correct assessment of argumentative features which are otherwise presumed ‘known’ but which are usually left uncertain. Development of the ideas is always based on a relationship between entity or phenomenon and their associated ecosystems, and this applies equally well to the consequent derivations of consciousness and information.

Anthropic Bias

Anthropic Bias

Author: Nick Bostrom

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781136711008

Category: Philosophy

Page: 240

View: 771

Anthropic Bias explores how to reason when you suspect that your evidence is biased by "observation selection effects"--that is, evidence that has been filtered by the precondition that there be some suitably positioned observer to "have" the evidence. This conundrum--sometimes alluded to as "the anthropic principle," "self-locating belief," or "indexical information"--turns out to be a surprisingly perplexing and intellectually stimulating challenge, one abounding with important implications for many areas in science and philosophy. There are the philosophical thought experiments and paradoxes: the Doomsday Argument; Sleeping Beauty; the Presumptuous Philosopher; Adam & Eve; the Absent-Minded Driver; the Shooting Room. And there are the applications in contemporary science: cosmology ("How many universes are there?", "Why does the universe appear fine-tuned for life?"); evolutionary theory ("How improbable was the evolution of intelligent life on our planet?"); the problem of time's arrow ("Can it be given a thermodynamic explanation?"); quantum physics ("How can the many-worlds theory be tested?"); game-theory problems with imperfect recall ("How to model them?"); even traffic analysis ("Why is the 'next lane' faster?"). Anthropic Bias argues that the same principles are at work across all these domains. And it offers a synthesis: a mathematically explicit theory of observation selection effects that attempts to meet scientific needs while steering clear of philosophical paradox.

Probability

Probability

Author: Steven Taylor

Publisher: Steven Taylor

ISBN:

Category: Mathematics

Page: 105

View: 574

A Book Bundle of Probability with Permutations and Markov Models Get two books in one now!! Probability with Permutations: An Introduction to Probability and Combinations Understanding probability as unique and stimulating theory which goes beyond conventional mathematics, will give you better perspective of the world around you. The first part of the book explains the fundamentals of probability in clear and easy to understand way even if you are not familiar with mathematics at all and you are just starting your journey towards this particular field of science. In the following sections of the book, the subject is explained in wider context along with importance of permutations and combinations in probability and their applications to a variety of scientific problems as well as the importance of probability in real life situations. Markov Models: An Introduction to Markov Models This book will offer you an insight into the Hidden Markov Models as well as the Bayesian Networks. Additionally, by reading this book, you will also learn algorithms such as Markov Chain Sampling. Furthermore, this book will also teach you how Markov Models are very relevant when a decision problem is associated with a risk that continues over time, when the timing of occurrences is vital as well as when events occur more than once. This book highlights several applications of Markov Models. Lastly, after purchasing this book, you will need to put in a lot of effort and time for you to reap the maximum benefits. By Downloading This Book Bundle Now You Will Discover: History of Probability Explanation of Combinations Probability Using Permutations and Combinations Urn Problems Probability and Lottery Probability and Gambling Applications of Probability Hidden Markov Models Dynamic Bayesian Networks Stepwise Mutations using the Wright Fisher Model Using Normalized Algorithms to Update the Formulas Types of Markov Processes Important Tools used with HMM Machine Learning And much much more! Download this book bundle now and learn more about Probability with Permutations and Markov Models!

Proof and Other Dilemmas

Proof and Other Dilemmas

Author: Roger Simons

Publisher: MAA

ISBN: 0883855674

Category: Mathematics

Page: 392

View: 364

Sixteen original essays exploring recent developments in the philosophy of mathematics, written in a way mathematicians will understand.

Probability With Permutations

Probability With Permutations

Author: Steven Taylor

Publisher: Steven Taylor

ISBN:

Category: Mathematics

Page: 45

View: 665

Probability With Permutations Understanding probability as unique and stimulating theory which goes beyond conventional mathematics, will give you better perspective of the world around you. The first part of the book explains the fundamentals of probability in clear and easy to understand way even if you are not familiar with mathematics at all and you are just starting your journey towards this particular field of science. In the following sections of the book, the subject is explained in wider context along with importance of permutations and combinations in probability and their applications to a variety of scientific problems as well as the importance of probability in real life situations. By Downloading This Book Now You Will Discover: History of Probability Explanation of Combinations Probability Using Permutations and Combinations Urn Problems Probability and Lottery Probability and Gambling Applications of Probability And much much more! Download this book now and learn more about Probability with Permutations!

The Emergent Multiverse

The Emergent Multiverse

Author: David Wallace

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780191631344

Category: Philosophy

Page:

View: 929

The Emergent Multiverse presents a striking new account of the 'many worlds' approach to quantum theory. The point of science, it is generally accepted, is to tell us how the world works and what it is like. But quantum theory seems to fail to do this: taken literally as a theory of the world, it seems to make crazy claims: particles are in two places at once; cats are alive and dead at the same time. So physicists and philosophers have often been led either to give up on the idea that quantum theory describes reality, or to modify or augment the theory. The Everett interpretation of quantum mechanics takes the apparent craziness seriously, and asks, 'what would it be like if particles really were in two places at once, if cats really were alive and dead at the same time'? The answer, it turns out, is that if the world were like that—if it were as quantum theory claims—it would be a world that, at the macroscopic level, was constantly branching into copies—hence the more sensationalist name for the Everett interpretation, the 'many worlds theory'. But really, the interpretation is not sensationalist at all: it simply takes quantum theory seriously, literally, as a description of the world. Once dismissed as absurd, it is now accepted by many physicists as the best way to make coherent sense of quantum theory. David Wallace offers a clear and up-to-date survey of work on the Everett interpretation in physics and in philosophy of science, and at the same time provides a self-contained and thoroughly modern account of it—an account which is accessible to readers who have previously studied quantum theory at undergraduate level, and which will shape the future direction of research by leading experts in the field.